Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are the principal vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, among other infectious agents, in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and upper midwestern USA. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are the primary and most competent reservoir host of B. burgdorferi in the Northeast. Live reservoir-targeted vaccines (RTVs) to limit enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi were previously developed and successfully evaluated in laboratory and controlled field trials. A novel, inactivated RTV was developed to minimize regulatory and market challenges facing previous RTVs based on live bacterial or viral vehicles. Thirty-two residential properties in Redding, Connecticut, participated in a field trial of an orally delivered, inactivated RTV efficacy study (2015–2016). During the two-year vaccination period, a significant decrease in the percentage of B. burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis larvae parasitizing P. leucopus was observed, as was a significant reduction in the percentage of infected P. leucopus on RTV-treated properties when compared to control properties. This novel inactivated RTV was effective in reducing numbers of B. burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi-infected P. leucopus on properties where it was distributed.
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We are grateful to Redding Town Staff and elected officials, specifically Natalie Ketchum, Julia Pemberton, and Doug Hartline for their support and assistance as well as all the collaborating homeowners for allowing us access to their properties. We thank CAES staff Michael Short, Heidi Stuber, Laura Hayes, and Saryn Kunajukr for their technical assistance as well as seasonal research assistants Mark Morris, Benjamin DeMasi-Sumner, Stephanie Shea, Heather Whiles, Adam Misiorski, Kelsey Schwenk, Jarrod Bridge, Pronoma Srivastava, Magalí Bazzano, and Alex Diaz. The authors gratefully acknowledge Lars Eisen for a review of a draft of the manuscript and R. John Brooke for review of the statistical analyses. This research was supported, in part, by U.S. Biologic, Inc., Hatch Act funds, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CK000182-03).
Conflict of interest
SZ, JGvO, CP, and LR are employed by US Biologic, Inc and SKW is a consultant. The authors declare that this affiliation did not influence them and that laboratory analyses they were responsible for were blind-coded by CAES.
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Stafford, K.C., Williams, S.C., van Oosterwijk, J.G. et al. Field evaluation of a novel oral reservoir-targeted vaccine against Borrelia burgdorferi utilizing an inactivated whole-cell bacterial antigen expression vehicle. Exp Appl Acarol 80, 257–268 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00458-1
- Borrelia burgdorferi
- Inactivated expression vehicle
- Ixodes scapularis
- Peromyscus leucopus
- Reservoir-targeted vaccine