Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test
- 165 Downloads
Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.
KeywordsDermacentor reticulatus Electromagnetic field Radiation-shielded tube test
This work was financially supported by the project: ‘Environmental protection against parasitozoonoses under the influence of global climate and social changes (code IMTS: 26220220116) ‘ of the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF (0.4). This project was also funded by VEGA under the grant approved by the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Grant No. 1/0417/14 (0.4), 1/0311/15, and 2/0141/16, Ministry of Education Agency for structural funds of EU in frame of Project No. 26220120055; Slovak Research and Development Agency, the project No. APVV–15–0438.
- Cook DM (2002) The theory of the electromagnetic field. Dover Publications, Mineola, New York, 510 ppGoogle Scholar
- de la Fuente J, Antunes S, Bonnet S, Cabezas-Cruz A, Domingos AG, Estrada-Peña A et al (2017) Tick-pathogen interactions and vector competence: identification of molecular drivers for tick-borne diseases. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:114. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00114 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Eisen L, Eisen RJ, Lane RS (2006) Geographical distribution patterns and habitat suitability models for presence of host-seeking ixodid ticks in dense woodlands of Mendocino County, California. J Med Entomol 43:415–427. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2006)043[0415:GDPAHS]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korotkov IS, Burenkov MS, Burenkova LA, Pichugin VI, Chunikhin SP, Engovatov VV (1996) The reaction of the tick Hyalomma asiaticum (Acarina, Ixodidae) to 1- to 4-GHz microwaves. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 4:28–31Google Scholar
- Korotkov I, La B, Ms B, VIu P (1999) The impact of electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequency (9.8 HhZ)on the embryonic and postembryonic development of the tick Hyalomma asiaticum (Acarina, Ixodidae). Med Parazitol (Mosk) 1:38–42Google Scholar
- Li S, Heyman P, Cochez C, Simons L, Vanwambeke SO (2012) A multi-level analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and questing Ixodes ricinus dynamics in Belgium. Parasites Vector 5(1):149. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-149
- Omoya FO, Kelly BA, Akinyosoye FA (2016) Impact of electromagnetic field on the pathogenicity of selected entomopathogenic bacteria (Proteus sp. and Bacillus sp.) on tick (Rhipicephalus decoloratus). Afr J Biotechnol 12. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/133907. Accessed 25 April 2016
- Soares SF, Borges LMF (2012) Electrophysiological responses of the olfactory receptors of the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to host-related and tick pheromone-related synthetic compounds. Acta Trop 124:192–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.08.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar