Evaluation of vaccine potential of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis
Ticks require blood feeding on vertebrate animals throughout their life cycle, and also concentrate the iron-containing blood, resulting in a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). High concentrations of H2O2 are harmful to organisms, due to their serious damage of macromolecules. Ticks have antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxiredoxins (Prxs), that scavenge H2O2. Prxs may have important roles in regulating the H2O2 concentration in ticks during blood feeding and oviposition. Moreover, Prxs are considered potential vaccine candidates in other parasites, such as Leishmania and Fasciola. In the present study, the efficacy of a tick Prx (HlPrx2) as a vaccine candidate antigen was evaluated. First, recombinant HlPrx2 (rHlPrx2) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and then, its purity and endotoxin levels were confirmed prior to administration. The rHlPrx2 proteins were of high purity with acceptably low endotoxin levels. Second, the ability of rHlPrx2 administration to stimulate mouse immunity was evaluated. The rHlPrx2 protein, with or without an adjuvant, could stimulate immunity in mice, especially the IgG1 of Th2 immune response. Using Western blot analysis, we also observed whether rHlPrx2-immunized mice sera could recognize native HlPrx2 protein in crude tick midgut proteins. Western blot analysis demonstrated that rHlPrx2-administrated mouse sera could detect the native HlPrx2. Finally, the effects of rHlPrx2 immunization in mice were studied using nymphal ticks. Although the challenged ticks were not affected by rHlPrx2 immunization, rHlPrx2 still might be considered as a vaccine candidate against ticks because of its high immunogenicity.
KeywordsTick Peroxiredoxin Immunization Th2 immune response
This study was funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15H05264, 16H05028, and 16J08221, and, in part, by a Grant from The Ito Foundation, Japan. K. Kusakisako is supported by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS fellows.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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