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Cryptic speciation within Phytoptus avellanae s.l. (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) revealed by molecular data and observations on molting Tegonotus-like nymphs

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Abstract

Hazelnut big bud mite, Phytoptus avellanae Nalepa, is one of the most harmful pests of Corylus spp. (Corylaceae) worldwide. Herein, we show that this species represents a complex of two cryptic species: one that lives and reproduces in buds causing their enlargement (‘big buds’) and drying, whereas the other is a vagrant living on leaves, under bud scales and in catkins, based on phylogenetic analyzes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA and the nuclear D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences. A molecular assessment based on mtCOI DNA and nuclear D2 28S rDNA revealed consistent differences of 16.8 and 3.5 % between the two species, respectively. Molecular analysis also revealed that atypical flattened nymphs (Tegonotus-like nymphs sensu Keifer in Mites Injurious to Economic Plants, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 327–562, 1975) with differently annulated opisthosoma, which appear in the life cycle of P. avellanae s.l., belong to the ‘vagrant’ lineage, i.e. vagrant cryptic species. Light microscopy images of Tegonotus-like nymphs molting into males and females are presented for the first time. Our results suggest that the name P. avellanae comprise two species. Big bud mite should keep the name P. avellanae, and the vagrant cryptic species should be re-named after a proper morphological description is made.

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Notes

  1. In our opinion it is more appropriate to call this nymph Sierraphytoptus-like because besides the differently annulated opisthosoma it possesses ve and c1 and belongs to the family Phytoptidae.

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Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by a research grant of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia (Grant # III 43001). Collecting mites in the USA and Russia, work visit of PC to Belgrade University (Serbia) and microscopic studies were supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSCF grant #14-14-00621) to the second author. We sincerely thank Prof. James W. Amrine (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA) for collecting samples in North America. Authors are grateful to Prof. Marko Anđelković, academician of SASA who for several years organized surveys of eriophyoids in Tara National Park, Serbia. We would also like to thank Mrs. Dragica Smiljanić and PhD student Mrs. Katarina Mladenović, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Serbia, and Dr. Ivo Toševski and Dr. Jelena Jović, Institute for Plant protection and Environment, Serbia, for collecting part of the samples.

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Correspondence to Tatjana Cvrković.

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Cvrković, T., Chetverikov, P., Vidović, B. et al. Cryptic speciation within Phytoptus avellanae s.l. (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) revealed by molecular data and observations on molting Tegonotus-like nymphs. Exp Appl Acarol 68, 83–96 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-015-9981-5

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