Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 66, Issue 4, pp 575–587 | Cite as

Parasitism of Trombidium brevimanum larvae on agrobiont linyphiid spiders from Germany

  • Vladimir TomićEmail author
  • Joanna Mąkol
  • Srdjan Stamenković
  • Wolfgang Büchs
  • Sabine Prescher
  • Ivan Sivčev
  • Draga Graora
  • Lazar Sivčev
  • Tatjana Gotlin-Čuljak
  • Boris Dudić


An experiment on three differently-managed agricultural fields in Ahlum, Germany, which aimed at establishing the impact of different management systems on the biodiversity of predators and decomposers, yielded a significant number of spiders parasitized by larvae of Trombidium brevimanum (Actinotrichida, Parasitengona, Trombidiidae). Spider data from the whole sampling period (September 2010–July 2012), indicated that ectoparasitic larvae were recorded only on spiders in pitfall traps in the period of June–July 2011. In this period, only eight species of Linyphiidae—out of 42 species assigned to nine spider families recorded from the study area—were parasitized by mites; considerable levels of parasitism were recorded on Erigone atra, E. dentipalpis, and Oedothorax apicatus. The highest prevalence of parasitism was recorded on the organic field for E. atra (29 %), while on the integrated and conventional fields significantly fewer parasitized spiders were observed. The preferred attachment sites on the spider host were regions with softer cuticle, especially regions on the carapace and on the abdomen, adjacent to the pedicel.


Trombidium brevimanum Linyphiidae Mites Spiders Ectoparasites Attachment site Oilseed rape Agroecosystem Organic land use 



The research was supported by SEE-ERA.NET PLUS Project No. 51/01 and Projects ON173038 and III43001 funded by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development.


  1. Antonatos SA, Nikolaos GE (2014) A qualitative study of Eutrombidiidae and Erythraeidae, ectoparasites on Orthoptera, in two grassland areas of Attica—Greece. Int J Acarol 40:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker AS, Selden PA (1997) New morphological and host data for the ectoparasitic larva of Leptus hidakai Kawashima (Acari, Acariformes, Erythraeidae). Syst Parasitol 36:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belozerov VN (2008) Calyptostasy: its role in the development and life histories of the Parasitengone mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Parasitengona). Acarina 16:3–19Google Scholar
  4. Bengtsson J, Ahnström J, Weibull AC (2005) The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta-analysis. J Appl Ecol 42:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blick T, Pfiffner L, Luka H (2000) Epigäische Spinnen auf Äckern der Nordwest-Schweiz im Mitteleuropäischen Vergleich (Arachnida: Araneae). Mitt Dtsch Ges Allg Angew Entomol 12:267–276Google Scholar
  6. Büchs W (2003) Impact of on-farm landscape structures and farming systems on predators. In: Alford DV (ed) Biocontrol of oilseed rape pests. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, pp 245–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Büchs W, Alford DV (2003) Predators of oilseed rape pests. In: Alford DV (ed) Biocontrol of oilseed rape pests. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, pp 181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Büchs W, Gotlin-Čuljak T, Sivčev I, Prescher S, Juran I, Sivčev L, Graora D, Grubisic D, Tomić V, Dudić B (2013) Impact of oilseed rape (OSR) production on functional biodiversity of predators and decomposers: development of management strategies for conservation and improvement in Croatia, Germany and Serbia. Final Report SEE-ERA.NET PLUS (ERA 51/01)Google Scholar
  9. Fain A, Jocqué R (1996) A new larva of the genus Leptus Latreille 1796 (Acari: Erythraeidae) parasitic on a spider from Rwanda. Int J Acarol 22:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Foelix RF (2011) Biology of spiders, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Haitlinger R (1996) Seven new larval species of mites (Acari, Prostigmata: Erythraeidae and Trombidiidae) from Poland. Wiad Parazytol 42:443–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haitlinger R (2004) New records of mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Erythraeidae, Trombidiidae, Eutrombidiidae) from Croatia, with descriptions of three new species. Nat Croat 13:143–160Google Scholar
  13. Judson M, Mąkol J (2011) Pseudoscorpions (Chelonethi: Neobisiidae) parasitized by mites (Acari: Trombidiidae, Erythraeidae). J Arachnol 39:345–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kobulej T (1957) Beiträge zur Trombidiidenfauna Ungarns. I. Feststellung der Identität der Trombidium-Larve. Acta Vet Acad Sci Hung 7:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krebs CJ (1999) Ecological methodology, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc, Menlo Park, CAGoogle Scholar
  16. Mäder P, Fließach A, Dubois D, Gunst L, Fried P, Niggli U (2002) Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694–1697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mąkol J (2005) Trombidiidae (Acari: Actinotrichida: Trombidioidea) of Poland. Fauna Poloniae. Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences & Natura Optima Dux Foundation, WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  18. Mąkol J, Felska M (2011) New records of spiders (Araneae) as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona mites (Acari: Actinotrichida: Prostigmata). J Arachnol 39:352–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mąkol J, Wohltmann A (2000) A redescription of Trombidium holosericeum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Acari: Actinotrichida: Trombidioidea) with characteristics of all active instars and notes on taxonomy and biology. Ann Zool 50:67–91Google Scholar
  20. Manly BFJ, McDonald LL, Thomas DL (1993) Resource selection by animals: statistical design and analysis for field studies. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohamed AMA, Hogg DB (2004) The attachment and stylostome of Trombidium newelli (Acari: Trombidiidae), an ectoparasitic mite on adults of alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Exp Appl Acarol 34:323–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nesbitt HHJ (1945) A revision of the family Acaridae (Tyroglyphidae), order Acari, based on comparative morphological studies. Part I: historical, morphological, and general taxonomic studies. Can J Res (D) 23:139–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nyffeler M, Sunderland KD (2003) Composition, abundance and pest control potential of spider communities in agroecosystems: a comparison of European and US studies. Agric Ecosyst Environ 95:579–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oudemans AC (1897) List of Dutch Acari Latr., fifth part Trombidides Leach with synonymical notes and other remarks and description of an apparently new but indeed very old species of Cheyletus, Ch. squamosus De Geer. Tijdschr Entomol 40:117–135Google Scholar
  25. Paoli G (1937) Studi sulle cavallette di Foggia (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thnb.) e sui loro oofagi (Ditteri Bombiliidi e Coleotteri Meloidi) ed Acari ectofagi (Eritreidi e Trombidiidi). Redia 23:27–206Google Scholar
  26. Parker JR, Roberts MJ (1974) Internal and external parasites of the spider Pardosa hortensis (Thorell). (Araneae: Lycosidae). Bull Br Arachnol Soc 3:82–84Google Scholar
  27. Reillo PR (1989) Mite parasitism of the polymorphic spider Enoplognatha ovata (Araneae, Theridiidae) from coastal Maine. J Arachnol 17:246–249Google Scholar
  28. Rózsa L, Reiczigel J, Majoros G (2000) Quantifying parasites in samples of hosts. J Parasitol 86:228–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Southcott RV (1991) A further revision of Charletonia (Acarina: Erythraeidae) based on larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs. Invertebr Taxon 5:61–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Southcott RV (1999) Larvae of Leptus (Acarina: Erythraeidae) free living or ectoparasitic on arachnids and lower insects of Australia and Papua New Guinea, with description of reared post-larval instars. Zool J Linn Soc 127:113–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. StatSoft Inc (2011) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. StatSoft Polska (
  32. Swan DC (1936) Berlese’s fluid: remarks upon its preparation and use as a mounting medium. Bull Entomol Res 27:389–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thorbek P, Topping CJ (2005) The influence of landscape diversity and heterogeneity on spatial dynamics of agrobiont linyphiid spiders: an individual-based model. Biocontrol 50:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Topping CJ, Sunderland KD (1992) Limitations to the use of pitfall traps in ecological studies: exemplified by study of spiders in a field of winter-wheat. J Appl Ecol 29:485–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Welbourn WC, Young OP (1988) Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). J Arachnol 16:373–385Google Scholar
  36. Wohltmann A (1999) On the biology of Trombidium brevimanum (Berlese, 1910) (Acari: Prostigmata: Parasitengonae: Trombidiidae) with a redescription of all active instars. Mitt Hamb Zool Mus Inst 96:159–170Google Scholar
  37. Wohltmann A (2000) The evolution of life histories in Parasitengona (Acari: Prostigmata). Acarologia 41:145–204Google Scholar
  38. Zhang ZQ (1992) The adaptive significance of superparasitism in a protelean parasite, Allothrombium pulvinum (Acari: Trombidiidae). Oikos 65:167–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang ZQ (1998) Biology and ecology of trombidiid mites (Acari: Trombidioidea). Exp Appl Acarol 22:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir Tomić
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joanna Mąkol
    • 2
  • Srdjan Stamenković
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Büchs
    • 3
  • Sabine Prescher
    • 3
  • Ivan Sivčev
    • 4
  • Draga Graora
    • 5
  • Lazar Sivčev
    • 4
  • Tatjana Gotlin-Čuljak
    • 6
  • Boris Dudić
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Zoology, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Department of Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology, Institute of BiologyWroclaw University of Environmental and Life SciencesWroclawPoland
  3. 3.Federal Research Centre for Cultivated PlantsInstitute for Crop and Soil Science (Julius-Kühn-Institute)BrunswickGermany
  4. 4.Department of Plant PestsInstitute for Plant Protection and EnvironmentZemun, BelgradeSerbia
  5. 5.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  6. 6.Department of Agricultural ZoologyUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations