Skip to main content
Log in

Description of a new relict eriophyoid mite, Loboquintus subsquamatus n. gen. & n. sp. (Eriophyoidea, Phytoptidae, Pentasetacini) based on confocal microscopy, SEM, COI barcoding and novel CLSM anatomy of internal genitalia

  • Published:
Experimental and Applied Acarology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


A new pentasetacine mite Loboquintus subsquamatus n. gen. & n. sp. was found living under scale-like leaves of 2–3 years old twigs of Cupressus sempervirens in Montenegro. This mite species possesses a number of morphological features (uncommon teardrop-shaped body, traits of prosoma, atypical primitive anatomy of the genital apparatus and morphological traits of immatures) which clearly distinguish it from all other known eriophyoids. Adults of L. subsquamatus have seta vi situated on the anterior margin of a uniquely elongate lingua-like thin frontal lobe, three pits on the posterior prodorsal shield margin, a remarkable tube-like structure in the basal part of gnathosoma, a complicated three-layered epigynium, spermathecae directed antero-laterad, short spermathecal tubes and setae eu suppressed in males and possibly expressed in females. External genitalia of males and females of L. subsquamatus are fundamentally similar. Hypothesized remnants of coxisterna III or IV (forming a postgenital plate) are remarkably distinct in males. Two new morphometrical variables are proposed to supplement the CLSM protocol for description of internal genitalia of eriophyoids proposed by Chetverikov et al. (Zootaxa 3560:41–60, 2012b): (a) the length of ventral projection of the transvers genital apodeme and (b) the length of the posterior (=postspermathecal) part of the longitudinal bridge which in L. subsquamatus is remarkably long, whereas in many other eriophyoids it is reduced.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Amrine et al. (2003) organized a separate monotypic phytoptid subfamily Prothricinae, including the phytoptid mite Prothrix aboula Keifer 1965 which has two pairs of setae on their prodorsal shield and presumably inhabits an unknown dicot host-plant (Chetverikov et al. 2012b). In agreement with E. Lindquist (pers. comm., June 2012), we think that the first pair of prodorsal shield setae of Prothrix mites are anteriorly placed setae sc, and not paired setae vi, as proposed by Amrine et al. (2003).

  2. Recently a description of another 5-setous mite Ampezzoa triassica Lindquist and Grimaldi, 2012 found in Triassic amber (probably produced by extinct Cheirolepidiaceae conifers) was published (Schmidt et al. 2012). The systematic position of these mites is still uncertain.

  3. This is not true dark field but a simulated “dark field”. This effect (similar to a true dark field and oblique lighting) can be achieved on a common phase contrast microscope if mites are observed using objectives with lower magnification (4×, 10×, 20×) while the phase contrast condenser ring is in the Ph3 position (which is normally used for the objective 100×). As per e-mail discussions, several eriophyidologists use this method as it provides excellent contrast of mite exoskeletons (bright contours of mites on a dark background) and allows to quickly locate mites on slides (C. Craemer, F. Beaulieu, E. de Lillo, J. Amrine pers. comm. 7–9 December 2011).

  4. The sputter-coating was done immediately after the gluing mites to adhesive disc since otherwise, mites could die and start decaying or collapse.

  5. After comparison of shield design of many females we concluded that the lines are the result of compression of the surface of the shield in the longitudinal direction. So, some observed variation in shield design is not due to intrinsic physical structural variation, but instead to slide-mounting artefact, e.g. the shield surface may be more flattened (with fewer lines) in more compressed specimens.

  6.  =suboral plate sensu Keifer (1975), =infracapitular ledge sensu Lindquist, pers. comm. May 2012.

  7. P.E. Chetverikov (2012a, b, p. 63, punctus 7, Fig. 5B) mentioned that spermatophores also can be observed within the male’s body in CLSM images. We suggest that the structure, he mentioned is the male ductus ejaculatorius and parts of the genital chamber rather than a spermatophore.


  • Alberti G, Coons LB (1999) Acari: mites. In: Harrison FW, Foelix RF (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol 8C. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 515–1215

    Google Scholar 

  • Amrine JW Jr, Stasny TA, Flechtmann CHW (2003) Revised keys to world genera of eriophyoidea (Acari: Prostigmata). Indira Publishing House, Michigan

    Google Scholar 

  • Bagnjuk IG, Sukhareva SI and Shevchenko VG (1998) Major trends in the evolution of four-legged mites as a specialized group (using families Pentasetacidae Shev., Nalepellidae Roiv. and Phytoptidae Murray (Acari: Tetrapodili) as examples). Acarina 6(1–2):59–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Boczek J, Shevchenko VG, Davis R (1989) Generic key to world fauna of eriophyoid mites (Acarida: Eriophyoidea). Warsaw Agricultural University Press, Warsaw

    Google Scholar 

  • Canestrini G. and Fanzago F. (1876) Nuovi acari Italiani. Atti Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze, Lettere ed Atri (Series 5) 4:69–208

  • Chetverikov PE (2011) Phytoptus atherodes n. sp. (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) and a supplementary description of Phytoptus hirtae Roivainen 1950 from sedges (Cyperaceae). Zootaxa 3045:26–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Chetverikov PE (2012a) Preliminary results of CLSM study of internal genitalia of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea). Abstracts of the 7th symposium of the European Association of Acarologists, 9–13 July 2012, Vienna, Austria, pp 28–29

  • Chetverikov PE (2012b) Confocal laser scanning microscopy technique for the study of internal genitalia and external morphology of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea). Zootaxa 3453:56–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Chetverikov PE, Sukhareva SI (2007) Supplementary descriptions and biological notes on eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) of the genus Novophytoptus Roivainen, 1947. Acarina 15(1):261–268

    Google Scholar 

  • Chetverikov PE, Petanovic R, Sukhareva SI (2009) Systematic remarks on eriophyoid mites from the subfamily Phytoptinae Murray, 1877 (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae). Zootaxa 2070:63–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Chetverikov P, Cvrković T, Vidović B and Petanović R (2012a) Phylogenetic study of Phytoptidae (Acari, Eriophyoidea) based on mitochondrial COI sequence strongly support the division of the genus Phytoptus into two groups. Abstracts of the 7th symposium of the EUROPEAN Association of Acarologists, 9–13 July 2012, Vienna, Austria, p 80

  • Chetverikov P, Beaulieu F, Cvrković T, Vidović B, Petanović R (2012b) Oziella sibirica (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae), a new eriophyoid mite species described using confocal microscopy and COI barcoding. Zootaxa 3560:41–60

    Google Scholar 

  • Craemer C (2010) A systematic appraisal of the Eriophyoidea (Acari: Prostigmata). Dissertation, University of Pretoria

  • Dabert J, Ehrnsberger R, Dabert M (2008) Glaucalges tytonis n. sp. (Analgoidea, Xolalgidae) from the barn owl Tyto alba (Strigiformes, Tytonidae): compiling morphology with DNA barcode data for taxon descriptions in mites (Acari). Zootaxa 1719:41–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Dobrivojevic K, Petanovic R (1982) Fundamentals of acarology. Slovo Ljubve Publishing, Belgrade (in Serbian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Earle CJ (2012) The gymnosperm database. Cupressus sempervirens. Accessed 10 Oct 2012

  • Farjon A (2005) A monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

    Google Scholar 

  • Flechtmann CHW (2004) Eriophyid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea) from Brazilian sedges (Cyperaceae). Int J Acarol 30:157–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Folmer O, Black M, Hoeh W, Lutz R, Vrijenhoek R (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Mil Mar Biol Biotech 3:294–299

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hebert PDN, Stoeckle MY, Zemlak TS, Francis CM (2004) Identification of birds through DNA barcodes. PLoS Biol 2:1657–1663

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1939a) Eriophyid studies IV. Bull Calif Dept Agric 28:233–239

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1939b) Eriophyid studies VI. Bull Calif Dept Agric 28:416–426

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1940) Eriophyid studies X. Bull Calif Dept Agric 29:160–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1943) Eriophyid studies XIII. Bull Calif Dept Agric 32:212–222

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1944) Eriophyid studies XIV. Bull Calif Dept Agric 33:18–38

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1959) Eriophyid studies XXVII. Occasional papers, California Department of Agriculture 1, pp 1–18

  • Keifer HH (1961) Eriophyid studies B-3. Bureau of Entomology, California Department of Agriculture, pp 1–20

  • Keifer HH (1962) Eriophyid studies B-7. Bureau of Entomology, California Department of Agriculture, pp 1–20

  • Keifer HH (1965) Eriophyid studies B-13. Bureau of Entomology, California Department of Agriculture, pp 1–20

  • Keifer HH (1975) Eriophyoidea, chapter 12. In: Jeppson LR, Keifer HH, Baker EW (eds) Mites injurious to economic plants. University of California Press Berkeley, USA, pp 327–396

    Google Scholar 

  • Keifer HH (1979) Eriophyid studies C-17. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, pp 1–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirpicznikov M and Zabinkova N (1977) Russko-latinsky slovar’ dlya botanikov [Russian-Latin dictionary for botanists].In: J. Borovskij (ed). Nauka Publishing House, Leningrad

  • Lindquist EE (1996a) External anatomy and notation of structures. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J (eds) Eriophyoid mites: their biology, natural enemies and control. World crop pests 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–31

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Lindquist EE (1996b) Phylogenetic relationships. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J (eds) Eriophyoid mites: their biology, natural enemies and control World crop pests 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 301–327

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Lindquist EE (2001) Poisining for a new century: diversification in acarology. Acarology: In: Proceedings of 10th international congress. Halliday RB, Walter DE, Proctor HC, Norton RA and Colloff MJ (eds), CSIRO Publishing, Melburne, pp 17–24

  • Murray A (1877) Economic entomology, Aptera. South Kensington Museum Science Handbooks, Chapman and Hall

    Google Scholar 

  • Nalepa A (1889) Beiträge zur Systematik der Phytopten. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wien, Abtheilung 1, 98(1):112–156

  • Nuzzaci G, Alberti G (1996) Internal anatomy and physiology. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J (eds) Eriophyoid mites: their biology, natural enemies and control. World crop pests 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 101–150

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Oldfield GN, Michalska K (1996) Spermatophore deposition, maiting behaivior and population maiting structure. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J (eds) Eriophyoid mites: their biology, natural enemies and control. World crop pests 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 185–198

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Roivainen H (1947) Eriophyid news from Finland. Acta Entomologica Fennica 3:1–51

    Google Scholar 

  • Roivainen H (1953) Some gall mites (Eriophyidae) from Spain. Publicado en los Archivos del Instituto de Aclimatacion 3:9–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S et al (2012) Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis. Nat Methods 9(7):676–682. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2019

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schliesske J (1985) Zur Verbrietung und Ökologie einer neunen urssprünglichen Gallmilbenart (Acari: Eriophyoidea) an Araucaria araucana (Molina). Entomologische Mitteilungen zoologische Museum Hamburg 8(124):97–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt AR, Janckeb S, Lindquist EE, Ragazzid E, Roghie G, Nascimbenef PC, Schmidt K, Wapplerh T, Grimaldi DA (2012) Arthropods in amber from the Triassic period. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(37):14796–14801

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith IM (1977) A new species of eriophyid mite with eye-like structures, and remarks on the genus Phytoptus (Acari: Prostigmata: Phytoptidae). Can Entomol 109:1097–1102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sukhareva SI (1994) Family Phytoptidae Murray 1877 (Acari: Tetrapodili), its consisting, structure and suggested ways of evolution. Acarina 2(1–2):47–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Ward LK, Hackshaw A, Clarke RT (2003) Do food-plant preferences of modern families of phytophagous insects and mites reflect past evolution with plants? Biol J Linn Soc 78(1):51–83. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00128.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We sincerely thank Prof. James W. Amrine (West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA), Dr. Evert E. Lindquist (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa) and Dr. Sogdiana I. Sukhareva (Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia) for their critical comments on earlier drafts of manuscript. We are grateful to Dr. H. Dastych (Zoologisches Museum of Universität Hamburg, Deutschland) for loaning syntypes of rare mites Pentasetacus araucariae and to Drs. Charnie Craemer (ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa), Ronald Ochoa and Gary R. Bouchan (USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, USA) for pertinent scientific on-line discussions on SEM techniques for studying eriophyoids and examples of colorized SEM images of mites. This work was partly supported by research grants of the Russian Foundation For Basic Research (RFBR research project # 12-04-31016_mol_a), Saint-Petersburg State University (Grant # and Ministry of Science and Environment of the Republic of Serbia (Grant # III 43001).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Philipp E. Chetverikov.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chetverikov, P.E., Cvrković, T., Vidović, B. et al. Description of a new relict eriophyoid mite, Loboquintus subsquamatus n. gen. & n. sp. (Eriophyoidea, Phytoptidae, Pentasetacini) based on confocal microscopy, SEM, COI barcoding and novel CLSM anatomy of internal genitalia. Exp Appl Acarol 61, 1–30 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: