Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 383–392 | Cite as

Elemol and amyris oil repel the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory bioassays

Article

Abstract

The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Both bioassays took advantage of the tendency of these host-seeking ticks to climb slender vertical surfaces. In one bioassay, the central portion of a vertical strip of filter paper was treated with test solution and ticks placed or allowed to crawl onto the untreated lower portion. In the other bioassay, a strip of organdy cloth treated with test solution was doubly wrapped (treatment on outer layer) around the middle phalanx of a forefinger and ticks released on the fingertip. Both amyris oil and elemol were repellent to both species of ticks. Elemol did not differ significantly in effectiveness against A. americanum from the widely used repellent deet. At 2 and 4 h after application to filter paper, 827 μg amyris oil/cm2 paper repelled 80 and 55%, respectively, of A. americanum nymphs. Ixodes scapularis was repelled by lower concentrations of amyris oil and elemol than A. americanum.

Keywords

Amyris balsamifera Maclura pomifera Blacklegged tick Lone star tick 

References

  1. Ahmad F, Jantan I (2003) Chemical constituents of the essential oils of Goniothalamus uvariodes King. Flavour Fragr J 18:128–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong PM, Brunet LR, Spielman A, Telford SR III (2001) Risk of Lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a lone star tick-infested community. Bull World Health Organ 79:916–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates D, Maechler M (2009) lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. R package version 0.999375-31. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
  4. Bissinger BW, Apperson CS, Sonenshine DE, Watson DW, Roe RM (2009) Efficacy of the nes repellent BioUD® against three species of ixodid ticks. Exp Appl Acarol 48:239–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carroll JF, Solberg VB, Klun JA, Kramer M, Debboun M (2004) Comparative activity of deet and AI3–37220 repellents against the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory bioassays. J Med Entomol 41:249–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carroll JF, Klun JA, Debboun M (2005) Repellency of deet and SS220 applied to skin involves olfactory sensing by two species of ticks. Med Vet Entomol 19:101–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carroll JF, Cantrell CL, Klun JA, Kramer M (2007) Repellency of two terpenoid compounds isolated from Callicarpa americana (Lamiaceae) against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks. Exp Appl Acarol 41:215–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carroll JF, Benante JP, Klun JA, White CE, Debboun M, Pound JM, Dheranetra W (2008) Twelve-hour duration testing of cream formulations of three repellents against Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). Med Vet Entomol 22:144–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. CDC (2002) Lyme disease. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ft. Collins, p 12Google Scholar
  10. Childs JE, Paddock CD (2003) The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States. Annu Rev Entomol 48:307–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dietrich G, Dolan MC, Peralta-Cruz J, Schmidt J, Piesman J, Eisen RJ, Karchesy J (2006) Repellent activity of fractioned compounds from Chamaecyparis nootkatensis essential oil against nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 43:957–961CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dolan MC, Maupin GO, Schneider BS, Denatale C, Hamon N, Cole C, Zeidner NS, Stafford KC III (2004) Control of immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on rodent reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi in a residential community of southeastern Connecticut. J Med Entomol 41:1043–1054CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fish D, Childs JE (2009) Community-based prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: background and rationale. Vector-Borne Zoonot Dis 9:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garboui SS, Jaenson TGT, Borg-Kalson A-K, Pålsson K (2007) Repellency of methyl jasmonate to Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 42:209–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jaenson TGT, Pålsson K, Borg-Karlson A-K (2005) Evaluation of extracts and oils of tick-repellent plants from Sweden. Med Vet Entomol 19:345–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lane RS, Anderson JR (1984) Efficacy of permethrin as a repellent and toxicant for personal protection against the Pacific coast tick and the pajaroello tick (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae). J Med Entomol 21:692–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McCullagh P, Nelder JA (1989) Generalized linear models, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall/CRC, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Paluch G, Grodnitzky J, Bartholomay L, Coats J (2009) Quantitative structure–activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J Agric Food Chem 57:7618–7625CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Parola P, Raoult D (2001) Ticks and tick-borne diseases in humans an emerging infectious threat. Clin Infect Dis 32:897–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Phillis WA, Cromroy HL (1977) The microanatomy of the eye of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) and resultant implications of its structure. J Med Entomol 13:685–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Piesman J, Eisen L (2008) Prevention of tick-borne diseases. Annu Rev Entomol 53:323–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. R Development Core Team (2009) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org
  23. Schreck CE, Mount GA, Carlson DA (1982) Wear and wash persistence of permethrin used as a clothing treatment for personal protection against the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 19:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schreck CE, Fish D, McGovern TP (1995) Activity of repellents applied to skin for protection against Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Am Mosq Contr Assoc 11:136–140Google Scholar
  25. Schultz GE, Peterson C, Coats J (2006) Natural insect repellents: activity against mosquitoes and cockroaches. In: Rimando AM, Duke SO (eds) Natural products for pest management; ACS Sym. Ser. 927. American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, pp 168–181Google Scholar
  26. Sonenshine DE (1993) Biology of ticks, vol 2. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Spielman A, Wilson ML, Levine JF, Piesman J (1985) Ecology of Ixodes dammini-borne human babesiosis and Lyme disease. Annu Rev Entomol 30:439–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Tunón H, Thorsell W, Mikinver A, Malander I (2006) Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Aremisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum. Fitoterapia 77:257–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Van Beek TA, Kleis R, Lelyveld GP, de Groot AE (1989) Preparative isolation of (+)- beta-eudesmol from Amyris balsamifera. Chromatographia 3(4):126–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S, 4th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang SY, Lai WC, Chu FH, Lin CT, Shen SY, Chang ST (2006) Essential oil from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica acts as a silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) repellent and insecticide. J Wood Sci 52:522–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Watanabe Y, Mihara R, Mitsunaga T, Yoshimura T (2005) Termite repellent sesquiterpenoids from Callitris glaucophylla heartwood. J Wood Sci 51:514–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang A, Klun JA, Wang S, Carroll JF, Debboun M (2009) Isolongifolenone: a novel sesquiterpene repellent of ticks and mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 46:100–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© U.S. Government 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. Carroll
    • 1
  • G. Paluch
    • 2
  • J. Coats
    • 2
  • M. Kramer
    • 3
  1. 1.USDA, ARS, Invasive Insect Behavior and Biocontrol LaboratoryBeltsville Agricultural Research CenterBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  3. 3.USDA, ARS, Biometrical Consulting ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations