Asia Pacific Journal of Management

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 373–408 | Cite as

Perceptions of the ethicality of favors at work in Asia: An 11-society assessment

  • Charlotte M. Karam
  • David A. Ralston
  • Carolyn P. Egri
  • Arif Butt
  • Narasimhan Srinivasan
  • Ping Ping Fu
  • Chay Hoon Lee
  • Yong-lin Moon
  • Yongjuan Li
  • Mahfooz Ansari
  • Christine Kuo
  • Vu Thanh Hung
  • Andre Pekerti
  • Philip Hallinger
  • Yongqing Fang
  • Ho-Beng Chia


We explore macro-level factors that shape perceptions of the ethicality of favors in Asian workplaces using the subordinate influence ethics (SIE) measure. We also expand and use the crossvergence model to examine the cross-level relationship between socio-cultural (i.e., traditional/secular; survival/self-expression; in-group favoritism) and business ideology influences (i.e., human development level, control of corruption) on perceptions of favor-seeking at work. This study examines the perceptions of a total of 4,325 managers and professionals in a diverse set of 11 Asian societies: China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Our investigation focuses on both the “softer” (image management) and “harder” (self-serving) sides of subordinate influence attempts to seek favors, as well as the degree of ethical differentiation across these societies. Key results based on hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) suggest that both the World Value Survey’s socio-cultural values as well as in-group favoritism contribute to our understanding of influence behaviors in Asia. Likewise, level of human development and control of corruption also appear to be promising predictors of influence ethics. In sum, our results suggest that widening the scope of the crossvergence conceptualization of socio-cultural and business ideology influences engender a better understanding of differences in attitudes toward subordinate use of favoritism across Asian societies.


Favor-seeking Favoritism Subordinate influence ethics Cross-cultural behavior Asia Hierarchical linear modeling 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte M. Karam
    • 1
  • David A. Ralston
    • 2
  • Carolyn P. Egri
    • 3
  • Arif Butt
    • 4
  • Narasimhan Srinivasan
    • 5
  • Ping Ping Fu
    • 6
  • Chay Hoon Lee
    • 7
  • Yong-lin Moon
    • 8
  • Yongjuan Li
    • 9
  • Mahfooz Ansari
    • 10
  • Christine Kuo
    • 11
  • Vu Thanh Hung
    • 12
  • Andre Pekerti
    • 13
  • Philip Hallinger
    • 14
  • Yongqing Fang
    • 15
  • Ho-Beng Chia
    • 16
  1. 1.American University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Florida International UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Simon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  4. 4.Lahore University of Management SciencesLahorePakistan
  5. 5.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  6. 6.Chinese University of Hong KongShatinChina
  7. 7.Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  8. 8.Seoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  9. 9.Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina
  10. 10.University of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada
  11. 11.Yuan-Ze UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  12. 12.National Economics UniversityHanoiVietnam
  13. 13.University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  14. 14.Anabas Learning Ltd.BangkokThailand
  15. 15.University of CanberraCanberraAustralia
  16. 16.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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