An improved sound source localization (SSL) method has been developed that is based on the generalized cross-correlation (GCC) method weighted by the phase transform (PHAT) for use with binaural robots equipped with two microphones inside artificial pinnae. The conventional SSL method based on the GCC-PHAT method has two main problems when used on a binaural robot platform: 1) diffraction of sound waves with multipath interference caused by the contours of the robot head, which affects localization accuracy, and 2) front-back ambiguity, which limits the localization range to half the horizontal space. The diffraction problem was overcome by incorporating a new time delay factor into the GCC-PHAT method under the assumption of a spherical robot head. The ambiguity problem was overcome by utilizing the amplification effect of the pinnae for localization over the entire azimuth. Experiments conducted using two dummy heads equipped with small or large pinnae showed that localization errors were reduced by 8.91° (3.21° vs. 12.12°) on average with the new time delay factor compared with the conventional GCC-PHAT method and that the success rate for front-back disambiguation using the pinnae amplification effect was 29.76 % (93.46 % vs. 72.02 %) better on average over the entire azimuth than with a conventional head related transfer function (HRTF)-based method.
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This research was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI No. 24220006) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
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Kim, UH., Nakadai, K. & Okuno, H.G. Improved sound source localization in horizontal plane for binaural robot audition. Appl Intell 42, 63–74 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10489-014-0544-y
- Intelligent robot audition
- Human-robot interaction
- Sound source localization
- Front-back disambiguation