Applied Intelligence

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 141–154 | Cite as

PC2PSO: personalized e-course composition based on Particle Swarm Optimization

  • Chih-Ping Chu
  • Yi-Chun ChangEmail author
  • Cheng-Chang Tsai


This paper proposes a Personalized e-Course Composition approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, called PC2PSO, to compose appropriate e-learning materials into personalized e-courses for individual learners. The PC2PSO composes a personalized e-course according to (1) whether or not the covered learning concepts of the personalized e-course meets the expected learning target of a learner, (2) whether or not the difficulty of the e-learning material matches a learner’s ability, (3) the limitation of learning time for individual learners, and (4) the balance of the weight of learning concepts that are covered in a personalized e-course. PC2PSO can provide a truly personalized learning environment when used in conjunction with an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). When an e-course authoring tool is based on the proposed approach, the PC2PSO can facilitate instructors in selecting appropriate e-learning materials from a mass of candidate e-learning materials, and then saves time and effort in the e-course editing process.


E-learning Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Personalized e-course composition Personalized learning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chih-Ping Chu
    • 1
  • Yi-Chun Chang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cheng-Chang Tsai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Cheng-Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan

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