Policies have potential to help families obtain behavioral healthcare for their children, but little is known about evidence for specific policy approaches. We reviewed evaluations of select policy levers to promote accessibility, affordability, acceptability, availability, or utilization of children’s mental and behavioral health services. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria. Location-based policy levers (school-based services and integrated care models) were associated with higher utilization and acceptability, with mixed evidence on accessibility. Studies of insurance-based levers (mental health parity and public insurance) provided some evidence for affordability outcomes. We found no eligible studies of workforce development or telehealth policy levers, or of availability outcomes.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Journal Table of Contents searched included Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research; Children and Youth Services Review; The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research; Journal of Law, Medicine, and Health; Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law; American Journal of Law and Medicine; Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; and Health Affairs.
Aarons, G. A., Hurlburt, M., & Horwitz, S. M. (2011). Advancing a conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation in public service sectors. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(1), 4–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-010-0327-7.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). 2016 National healthcare quality and disparities report. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqdr16/2016qdr.pdf.
Alegria, M., Vallas, M., & Pumariega, A. J. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric mental health. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(4), 759–774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2010.07.001.
Allen, J., Balfour, R., Bell, R., & Marmot, M. (2014). Social determinants of mental health. International Review of Psychiatry, 26(4), 392–407. https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.928270.
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Workforce. (2015). The use of telemedicine to address access and physician workforce shortages. Pediatrics, 136(1), 202–209. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-1253.
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health. (2004). School-based mental health services. Pediatrics, 113(6), 1839–1845. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.113.6.1839.
Andersen, R. M. (1995). Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: Does it matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137284.
Asarnow, J. R., Rozenman, M., Wiblin, J., & Zeltzer, L. (2015). Integrated medical-behavioral care compared with usual primary care for child and adolescent behavioral health. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(10), 929. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1141.
Atkins, M. S., Graczyk, P. A., Frazier, S. L., & Abdul-Adil, J. (2003). Toward a new model for promoting urban children’s mental health: Accessible, effective, and sustainable school-based mental health services. School Psychology Review, 32(4), 503–514.
Azrin, S. T., Huskamp, H. A., Azzone, V., Goldman, H. H., Frank, R. G., Burnam, M. A., et al. (2007). Impact of full mental health and substance abuse parity for children in the federal employees health benefits program. Pediatrics, 119(2), e452–e459. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-0673.
Baicker, K., & Chandra, A. (2017). Evidence-based health policy. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(25), 2413–2415. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1709816.
Barry, C. L., & Busch, S. H. (2007). Do state parity laws reduce the financial burden on families of children with mental health care needs? Health Services Research, 42(3 I), 1061–1084. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00650.x.
Barry, C. L., & Busch, S. H. (2008). Caring for children with mental disorders: Do state parity laws increase access to treatment? The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 11(2), 57–66.
Barry, C. L., Chien, A. T., Normand, S.-L. T., Busch, A. B., Azzone, V., Goldman, H. H., & Huskamp, H. A. (2013). Parity and out-of-pocket spending for children with high mental health or substance abuse expenditures. Pediatrics, 131(3), e903–e911. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1491.
Barry, C. L., & Huskamp, H. A. (2011). Moving beyond parity—mental health and addiction care under the ACA. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(11), 973–975. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1108649.
Becker, A. E., & Kleinman, A. (2013). Mental health and the global agenda. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(1), 66–73. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1110827.
Behrens, D., Lear, J. G., Price, O. A., & Org, H. (2013). Improving access to children’s mental health care: Lessons from a study of eleven states health and health care in schools. Washington, DC: Center for Health and Health Care in Schools. Retrieved from https://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/reports/2013/rwjf404627.
Bilaver, L. A., & Jordan, N. (2013). Impact of state mental health parity laws on access to autism services. Psychiatric Services, 64(10), 967–973. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201200411.
Black, M. M., Walker, S. P., Fernald, L. C. H., Andersen, C. T., DiGirolamo, A. M., Lu, C., … Grantham-McGregor, S. (2017). Early childhood development coming of age: Science through the life course. The Lancet, 389(10064), 77–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7.
Boat, T. F., Land, M. L., & Leslie, L. K. (2017). Health care workforce development to enhance mental and behavioral health of children and youths. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(11), 1031. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2473.
Bower, P., Garralda, E., Kramer, T., Harrington, R., & Sibbald, B. (2001). The treatment of child and adolescent mental health problems in primary care: A systematic review. Family Practice, 18(4), 373–382. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/18.4.373.
Britto, P. R., Lye, S. J., Proulx, K., Yousafzai, A. K., Matthews, S. G., Vaivada, T., et al. (2017). Nurturing care: Promoting early childhood development. The Lancet, 389(10064), 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31390-3.
Bunik, M., Talmi, A., Stafford, B., Beaty, B., Kempe, A., Dhepyasuwan, N., & Serwint, J. R. (2013). Integrating mental health services in primary care continuity clinics: A national CORNET study. Academic Pediatrics, 13(6), 551–557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2013.07.002.
Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000127590.95585.65.
Burris, S., Hitchcock, L., Ibrahim, J., Penn, M., & Ramanathan, T. (2016). Policy surveillance: A vital public health practice comes of age: Table 1. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 41(6), 1151–1173. https://doi.org/10.1215/03616878-3665931.
Busch, S. H., & Barry, C. L. (2007). Mental health disorders in childhood: Assessing the burden on families. Health Affairs, 26(4), 1088–1095. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.26.4.1088.
Carpenter, J., Tynan, D., & Woods, K. E. (n.d.). Integrating child psychology services in primary care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/primary-care/integrating-services.aspx.
Carrey, N. J., Curran, J. A., Greene, R., Nolan, A., & McLuckie, A. (2014). Embedding mental health interventions in early childhood education systems for at-risk preschoolers: An evidence to policy realist review. Systematic Reviews, 3(1), 84. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-3-84.
Chatterji, P., Decker, S. L., & Markowitz, S. (2015). The effects of mandated health insurance benefits for autism on out-of-pocket costs and access to treatment. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 34(2), 328–353. https://doi.org/10.1002/pam.21814.
Chuang, E., & Wells, R. (2010). The role of interagency collaboration in facilitating receipt of behavioral health services for youth involved with child welfare and juvenile justice. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(12), 1814–1822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.08.002.
Cree, R. A., Bitsko, R. H., Robinson, L. R., Holbrook, J. R., Danielson, M. L., Smith, C., et al. (2018). Health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders and poverty among children aged 2–8 years—United States, 2016. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(50), 1377–1383. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6750a1.
Dahl, G. B., & Lochner, L. (2012). The impact of family income on child achievement: Evidence from the earned income tax credit. The American Economic Review, 102, 1927–1956. https://doi.org/10.2307/41724610.
DeRigne, L. (2010). What are the parent-reported reasons for unmet mental health needs in children? Health & Social Work, 35(1), 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/35.1.7.
DeVoe, J. E., Wallace, L., Selph, S., Westfall, N., & Crocker, S. (2011). Comparing type of health insurance among low-income children: A mixed-methods study from Oregon. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(8), 1238–1248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-010-0706-4.
Doshi, P., Tilford, J. M., Ounpraseuth, S., Kuo, D. Z., & Payakachat, N. (2017). Do insurance mandates affect racial disparities in outcomes for children with autism? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(2), 351–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2120-z.
Feinberg, E., Swartz, K., Zaslavsky, A., Gardner, J., & Walker, D. K. (2002). Family income and the impact of a children’s health insurance program on reported need for health services and Unmet health need. Pediatrics, 109(2), e29. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.109.2.e29.
Forman-Hoffman, V. L., Cook Middleton, J., Lynn, M., McKeeman, J., Faw Stambaugh, L., Christian, B., et al. (2016). Strategies to improve mental health care for children and adolescents. Washington, DC: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Retrieved from https://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/599/2371/mental-health-children-report-161219.pdf.
Friedman, R. M. (2003). A conceptual framework for developing and implementing effective policy in children’s mental health. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(1), 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/106342660301100103.
Garland, A. F., Haine-Schlagel, R., Brookman-Frazee, L., Baker-Ericzen, M., Trask, E., & Fawley-King, K. (2013). Improving community-based mental health care for children: Translating knowledge into action. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(1), 6–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-012-0450-8.
Gassman-Pines, A., & Hill, Z. (2013). How social safety net programs affect family economic well-being, family functioning, and children’s development. Child Development Perspectives, 7(3), 172–181. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12037.
Goldman, S. K., Stroul, B. A., Huang, L. N., & Kovanagi, C. (2008). Policy implications: New directions in child and adolescent mental health. In B. A. Stroul & Ga. Blau (Eds.), Systems of care handbook. Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Grace, F. C., Meurk, C. S., Head, B. W., Hall, W. D., Carstensen, G., Harris, M. G., & Whiteford, H. A. (2015). An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992–2012. BMC Health Services Research. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-1142-3.
Hacker, K., Penfold, R., Arsenault, L. N., Zhang, F., Soumerai, S. B., & Wissow, L. S. (2017). The impact of the massachusetts behavioral health child screening policy on service utilization. Psychiatric Services, 68(1), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201500543.
Hamad, R., & Rehkopf, D. H. (2016). Poverty and child development: A Longitudinal study of the impact of the earned income tax credit. American Journal of Epidemiology, 183(9), 775–784. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwv317.
Howell, E., & McFeeters, J. (2008). Children’s mental health care: Differences by race/ethnicity in urban/rural areas. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19(1), 237–247. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2008.0008.
Hurt, L., Paranjothy, S., Lucas, P. J., Watson, D., Mann, M., Griffiths, L. J., et al. (2018). Interventions that enhance health services for parents and infants to improve child development and social and emotional well-being in high-income countries: A systematic review. British Medical Journal Open, 8(2), e014899. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014899.
Jewell, C. J., & Bero, L. A. (2008). “Developing good taste in evidence”: Facilitators of and Hindrances to evidence-informed health policymaking in state government. Milbank Quarterly, 86(2), 177–208. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2008.00519.x.
Kaminski, J. W., & Claussen, A. H. (2017). Evidence Base Update for Psychosocial Treatments for Disruptive Behaviors in Children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1310044.
Kaplan, D. W., Brindis, C. D., Phibbs, S. L., Melinkovich, P., Naylor, K., & Ahlstrand, K. (1999). A comparison study of an elementary school–based health center. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153(3), 235–243. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.153.3.235.
Kelleher, K. J., & Gardner, W. (2017). Out of sight, out of mind—behavioral and developmental care for rural children. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(14), 1301–1303. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1700713.
Lu, W. (2017). Child and adolescent mental disorders and health care disparities: Results from the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2011–2012. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 28(3), 988–1011. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2017.0092.
Martini, L., Presley, D., Klieger, S., & Burris, S. (2016). A scan of CDC-authored articles on legal epidemiology, 2011–2015. Public Health Reports, 131(6), 809–815. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354916669497.
McConnell, K. J., Gast, S. H. N., Ridgely, M. S., Wallace, N., Jacuzzi, N., Rieckmann, T., et al. (2012). Behavioral health insurance parity: Does oregon’s experience presage the national experience with the mental health parity and addiction equity act? American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(1), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11020320.
Mental Health America. (2014). Position statement 42: Services for Children with mental health conditions and their families. Alexandria, VA: Mental Health America. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/positions/childrens-services.
Miles, J., Espiritu, R., Horen, N., Sebian, J., & Waetzig, E. (2010). A public health approach to children’s mental health: A conceptual framework. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. Retrieved from https://gucchdtacenter.georgetown.edu/publications/PublicHealthApproach.pdf.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., Altman, D., Antes, G., et al. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(4), 264–269. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-151-4-200908180-00135.
Moulton, A. D., Mercer, S. L., Popovic, T., Briss, P. A., Goodman, R. A., Thombley, M. L., et al. (2009). The scientific basis for law as a public health tool. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.130278.
Murphey, D., Vaughn, B., & Barry, M. (2013). Access to mental health care. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Child_Trends-2013_01_01_AHH_MHAccessl.pdf.
Myers, K., & Cain, S. (2008). Practice parameter for telepsychiatry with children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(12), 1468–1483. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31818b4e13.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Opportunities to Promote children’s behavioral health: Health care reform and beyond. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/23545.
Osypuk, T. L., Joshi, P., Geronimo, K., & Acevedo-Garcia, D. (2014). Do social and economic policies influence health? A review. Current Epidemiology Reports, 1(3), 149–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40471-014-0013-5.
Penchansky, R., & Thomas, J. W. (1981). The concept of access: definition and relationship to consumer satisfaction. Medical Care, 19(2), 127–140. https://doi.org/10.2307/3764310.
Perrin, J. M., Boat, T. F., & Kelleher, K. J. (2016). The influence of health care policies on children’s health and development. Society for Research in Child Development: Social Policy Report, 29(4), 1–26.
Pires, S., Grimes, K., Gilmer, T., Allen, K., Mahadevan, R., & Hendricks, T. (2013a). Identifying Opportunities to improve children’s behavioral health care: An analysis of medicaid utilization and expenditures. Hamilton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies. Retrieved from https://www.chcs.org/media/Identifying-Opportunities-to-Improve-Childrens-Behavioral-Health-Care2.pdf.
Pires, S., Grimes, K. E., Allen, K. D., Gilmer, T., & Mahadevan, R. M. (2013b). Faces of medicaid: Examining children’s behavioral health service utilization and expenditures. Hamilton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies. Retrieved from https://www.chcs.org/media/Faces-of-Medicaid_Examining-Childrens-Behavioral-Health-Service-Utilization-and-Expenditures1.pdf.
Pumariega, A. J., Atkins, D. L., Rogers, K., Montgomery, L., Nybro, C., Caesar, R., & Millus, D. (1999). Mental health and incarcerated youth. II: Service utilization. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 8(2), 205–215. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022092002435.
Purtle, J., Dodson, E. A., & Brownson, R. C. (2016). Uses of research evidence by state legislators who prioritize behavioral health issues. Psychiatric Services, 67(12), 1355–1361. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201500443.
Raghavan, R., Bright, C. L., & Shadoin, A. L. (2008). Toward a policy ecology of implementation of evidence-based practices in public mental health settings. Implementation Science. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-3-26.
Reck, J., & Heider, F. (2017). Lessons from states on advancing evidence-based state health policymaking for the effective stewardship of healthcare resources how can evidence-based policymaking help state health policymakers? Washington, DC: National Academy for State Health Policy. Retrieved from http://www.nashp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/PCORI-Brief.pdf.
Roberts, M., Hsiao, W., Berman, P., & Reich, M. R. (2008). The health reform cycle. In M. J. Roberts (Ed.), Getting health reform right: A guide to improving performance and equity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Roll, J. M., Kennedy, J., Tran, M., & Howell, D. (2013). Disparities in Unmet need for mental health services in the United States, 1997–2010. Psychiatric Services, 64(1), 80–82. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201200071.
Rones, M., & Hoagwood, K. (2000). School-based mental health services: A research review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3(4), 223–241. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026425104386.
Shonkoff, J. P. (2017). Rethinking the Definition of evidence-based interventions to promote early childhood development. Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3136.
Siceloff, E. R., Barnes-Young, C., Massey, C., Yell, M., & Weist, M. D. (2017). Building policy support for school mental health in rural areas emotional and behavioral health of children and adolescents. In K. D. Michael & J. P. Jameson (Eds.), Handbook of rural school mental health. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64735-7_2.
Siemer, C. P., Fogel, J., & Van Voorhees, B. W. (2011). Telemental health and web-based applications in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of NA, 20, 135–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2010.08.012.
Sipe, T. A., Finnie, R. K. C., Knopf, J. A., Qu, S., Reynolds, J. A., Thota, A. B., et al. (2015). Effects of mental health benefits legislation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(6), 755–766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.01.022.
Slade, E. P. (2002). Effects of school-based mental health programs on mental health service use by adolescents at school and in the community. Mental Health Services Research, 4(3), 151–166. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019711113312.
Smith, S., Granja, M., Ekono, M., Robbins, T., & Nagarur, M. (2017). Using medicaid to help young children and parents access mental health services. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pdf/text_1164.pdf.
Spencer, R. A., & Komro, K. A. (2017). Family economic security policies and child and family health. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 20(1), 45–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-017-0225-6.
Stagman, S., & Cooper, J. L. (2010). Children’s mental health: What every policymaker should know. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pdf/text_929.pdf.
Stein, R. E. K., & Jessop, D. J. (1984). Does pediatric home care make a difference for children with chronic illness? Findings from the pediatric ambulatory care treatment study. Pediatrics, 73(6), 845–853.
Tabak, R. G., Khoong, E. C., Chambers, D. A., & Brownson, R. C. (2012). Bridging research and practice: Models for dissemination and implementation research. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(3), 337–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.024.
Trupin, E., & Kerns, S. (2017). Introduction to the special issue: Legislation related to children’s evidence-based practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 44(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-015-0666-5.
Tyler, E. T., Hulkower, R. L., & Kaminski, J. W. (2017). Behavioral health integration in pediatric primary care: Considerations and opportunities for policymakers, planners, and providers. New York, NY: Milbank Memorial Fund. Retrieved from https://www.milbank.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/MMF_BHI_REPORT_FINAL.pdf.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity—A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2017). Child well-being: Key considerations for policymakers, including the need for a federal cross-agency priority goal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/assets/690/688252.pdf.
Wahlbeck, K. (2015). Public mental health: The time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice. World Psychiatry, 14(1), 36–42. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20178.
Wells, R., Hillemeier, M. M., Bai, Y., & Belue, R. (2009). Health service access across racial/ethnic groups of children in the child welfare system. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(5), 282–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.11.003.
Williamson, A., Makkar, S. R., McGrath, C., & Redman, S. (2015). How can the use of evidence in mental health policy be increased? A systematic review. Psychiatric Services, 66(8), 783–797. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201400329.
Zuvekas, S. H., Regier, D. A., Rae, D. S., Rupp, A., & Narrow, W. E. (2002). The impacts of mental health parity and managed care in one large employer group. Health Affairs, 21(3), 148–159. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.21.3.148.
We thank Katherine Tucker for her expertise in the literature search. Preliminary findings of this research were presented at the Academy Health/National Institutes of Health 10th Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health, Association of University Centers on Disability 2017 Annual Meeting, and 2018 Carter Center Georgia Mental Health Forum. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of CDC nor the U.S. government.
This research was supported by an appointment to the Research Participation Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and CDC (for M. So and R.F. McCord’s contributions).
Conflict of interest
M. So, R.F. McCord, and J.W. Kaminski declare no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was not required, since this was a review of existing literature and not of human subjects.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
So, M., McCord, R.F. & Kaminski, J.W. Policy Levers to Promote Access to and Utilization of Children’s Mental Health Services: A Systematic Review. Adm Policy Ment Health 46, 334–351 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-018-00916-9