Enhancing the Delivery of an Empirically-Supported Trauma-Focused Treatment for Adolescents: Providers’ Views of the Role of Technology and Web-Based Resources

  • Rosaura E. Orengo-Aguayo
  • Rochelle F. Hanson
  • Angela D. Moreland
  • Lisa Jobe-Shields
  • Zachary W. Adams
Original Article

Abstract

This mixed-methods study assessed providers’ views of the use of technology in the delivery of an empirically supported mental health treatment for adolescents (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; TF-CBT). Thematic qualitative interviews were conducted with nine experienced providers. Emerging themes served as the basis for the creation of a quantitative web-based survey, completed by 56 TF-CBT experts, to assess the perceived helpfulness of the recommendations. Technology was perceived as a useful, appealing, and familiar tool that could greatly enhance the delivery of this treatment modality with adolescents. Main recommendations included the creation of a mobile application targeting all of the treatment components and a website with developmentally appropriate resources for providers, caregivers, and teens. Technology may be a useful tool for enhancing service delivery and promoting engagement among youth receiving trauma-focused mental health treatment.

Keywords

Service delivery Treatment engagement Technology e-Health Adolescent mental health TF-CBT Dissemination and implementation 

Notes

Funding

Data collection and manuscript preparation was supported by grants from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Category II, (Grant No. 1U79SM061269-01 awarded to Dr. Hanson) and from the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. T32MH18869 awarded to Dr. Orengo-Aguayo). These funding agencies had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, D. J., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 256, 174–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berliner, L., & Kolko, D. J. (2016). Trauma informed care: A commentary and critique. Child Maltreatment, 21, 168–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Callahan, A., & Inckle, K. (2012). Cybertherapy or psychobabble? A mixed methods study of online emotional support. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 40, 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clough, B. A., & Casey, L. M. (2011). Technological adjuncts to enhance current psychotherapy practices: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 279–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2017). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 209–240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Davidson, T. M., Soltis, K., de Arellano, M. A., MinHee, A. C., & Ruggiero, K. J. (2015). Providers’ perspectives regarding the development of a web-based depression intervention for Latina/o youth. Psychological Services, 12, 37–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. DeCuir-Gunby, J. T., Marshall, P., & McCulloch, A. (2011). Developing and using a codebook for the analysis of interview data: An example from a professional development research project. Field Methods, 23, 136–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ebert, D. D., Carlotta-Zarski, A., Christensen, H., Stikkelbroek, Y., Cuijpers, P., Berking, M., & Riper, H. (2015). Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials. PLoS ONE, 10, 1–15.Google Scholar
  11. Elo, S., & Kyngas, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 107–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S., & Kracke, K. (2009). Children’s exposure to violence: A comprehensive national survey. US Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/DOJ-NatSCEV-bulletin.pdf.
  13. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  14. Hanson, R. F., Gros, S., Davidson, K., Barr, T. M., Cohen, S., Deblinger, J. E., & Ruggiero, K. J. (2014). National trainers’ perspectives on challenges to implementation of an empirically-supported treatment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41, 522–534.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanson, R. F., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2017). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for children and adolescents. In S. N. Gold, J. M. Cook & C. J. Dalenberg (Eds.), APA handbook of trauma psychology Vol. 2: Trauma Practice (pp. 389–427). Washington, DC: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawley, K. M., Cook, J. R., & Jensen-Doss, A. (2009). Do noncontingent incentives increase survey response rates among mental health providers? A randomized trial comparison. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 36, 343–348.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., & Becker, A. B. (2001). Community-based participatory research: Policy recommendations for promoting a partnership approach in health research. Education for Health, 14, 182–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kazdin, A. E., & Blase, S. L. (2011). Rebooting psychotherapy research and practice to reduce the burden of mental illness. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 21–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Smith, D. W. (2003). Research in brief: Youth victimization: Prevalence and implications (NCJ 194972). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  20. Lenhart, A. (2015). Teen, social media and technology overview 2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015.
  21. Lyon, A. R., & Koerner, K. (2016). User-centered design for psychosocial intervention development and implementation. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 23, 180–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Marsch, L. A., & Borodovsky, J. T. (2016). Technology-based interventions for preventing and treating substance use among youth. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25, 755–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matthews, M., Doherty, G., Sharry, J., & Fitzpatrick, C. (2008). Mobile phone mood charting for adolescents. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 36, 113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McGorry, P., Bates, T., & Birchwood, M. (2013). Designing youth mental health services for the 21st century: Examples from Australia, Ireland and the UK. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, s30–s35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McKay, M., Hibbert, R., Hoagwood, K., et al. (2004). Integrating evidence based engagement strategies into “real world” child mental health settings. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4, 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. QSR International Ltd. (2010). NVivo-10 qualitative data analysis software (version 10). [Computer software]. QSR International Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Rainie, L. (2009). Teens and the internet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Presentations/2009/Teens-and-theinternet.aspx.
  28. Rideout, V., & Katz, V. S. (2016). Opportunity for all? Technology and learning in lower-income families. Retrieved from http://www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/jgcc_opportunityforall.pdf.
  29. Ruggiero, K. J., Bunnell, B. E., Andrews, A. R. III, Davidson, T. M., Hanson, R. F., Danielson, C. K., Saunders, B. E., Soltis, K., Yarian, C., Chu, B., & Adams, Z. W. (2015). Development and pilot evaluation of a tablet-based application to improve quality of care in child mental health treatment. JMIR Res Protoc, 4, e143.  https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.4416.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Schueller, S. M., Stiles-Shields, C., & Yarosh, L. (2017). Online treatment and virtual therapists in child and adolescent psychiatry. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 26, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, National Crime Victims Research & Treatment CenterMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of RichmondVirginiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryIndiana UniversityIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations