Enhancing the Delivery of an Empirically-Supported Trauma-Focused Treatment for Adolescents: Providers’ Views of the Role of Technology and Web-Based Resources
This mixed-methods study assessed providers’ views of the use of technology in the delivery of an empirically supported mental health treatment for adolescents (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; TF-CBT). Thematic qualitative interviews were conducted with nine experienced providers. Emerging themes served as the basis for the creation of a quantitative web-based survey, completed by 56 TF-CBT experts, to assess the perceived helpfulness of the recommendations. Technology was perceived as a useful, appealing, and familiar tool that could greatly enhance the delivery of this treatment modality with adolescents. Main recommendations included the creation of a mobile application targeting all of the treatment components and a website with developmentally appropriate resources for providers, caregivers, and teens. Technology may be a useful tool for enhancing service delivery and promoting engagement among youth receiving trauma-focused mental health treatment.
KeywordsService delivery Treatment engagement Technology e-Health Adolescent mental health TF-CBT Dissemination and implementation
Data collection and manuscript preparation was supported by grants from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Category II, (Grant No. 1U79SM061269-01 awarded to Dr. Hanson) and from the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. T32MH18869 awarded to Dr. Orengo-Aguayo). These funding agencies had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2017). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 209–240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ebert, D. D., Carlotta-Zarski, A., Christensen, H., Stikkelbroek, Y., Cuijpers, P., Berking, M., & Riper, H. (2015). Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials. PLoS ONE, 10, 1–15.Google Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S., & Kracke, K. (2009). Children’s exposure to violence: A comprehensive national survey. US Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/DOJ-NatSCEV-bulletin.pdf.
- Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
- Hanson, R. F., Gros, S., Davidson, K., Barr, T. M., Cohen, S., Deblinger, J. E., & Ruggiero, K. J. (2014). National trainers’ perspectives on challenges to implementation of an empirically-supported treatment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41, 522–534.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hawley, K. M., Cook, J. R., & Jensen-Doss, A. (2009). Do noncontingent incentives increase survey response rates among mental health providers? A randomized trial comparison. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 36, 343–348.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Smith, D. W. (2003). Research in brief: Youth victimization: Prevalence and implications (NCJ 194972). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Lenhart, A. (2015). Teen, social media and technology overview 2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015.
- QSR International Ltd. (2010). NVivo-10 qualitative data analysis software (version 10). [Computer software]. QSR International Ltd.Google Scholar
- Rainie, L. (2009). Teens and the internet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Presentations/2009/Teens-and-theinternet.aspx.
- Rideout, V., & Katz, V. S. (2016). Opportunity for all? Technology and learning in lower-income families. Retrieved from http://www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/jgcc_opportunityforall.pdf.
- Ruggiero, K. J., Bunnell, B. E., Andrews, A. R. III, Davidson, T. M., Hanson, R. F., Danielson, C. K., Saunders, B. E., Soltis, K., Yarian, C., Chu, B., & Adams, Z. W. (2015). Development and pilot evaluation of a tablet-based application to improve quality of care in child mental health treatment. JMIR Res Protoc, 4, e143. https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.4416.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar