Promoting Teachers’ Implementation of Classroom-Based Prevention Programming Through Coaching: The Mediating Role of the Coach–Teacher Relationship

  • Stacy R. Johnson
  • Elise T. Pas
  • Catherine P. Bradshaw
  • Nicholas S. Ialongo
Original Article


There is growing awareness of the importance of implementation fidelity and the supports, such as coaching, to optimize it. This study examined how coaching activities (i.e., check-ins, needs assessment, modeling, and technical assistance) related directly and indirectly to implementation dosage and quality of the PAX Good Behavior Game, via a mediating pathway through working relationship. Mediation analyses of 138 teachers revealed direct effects of modeling and working relationship on implementation dosage, whereas needs assessment was associated with greater dosage indirectly, by higher ratings of the working relationship. Understanding how coaching activities promote implementation fidelity elements has implications for improving program effectiveness.


Evidence-based programs Implementation Coaching activities Working relationship Mediation 



We thank Celene Domitrovich and Kimberly Becker for their contributions to the collection of these data.


This work was funded in part by grants from the Institute of Education Sciences awarded to Catherine Bradshaw (R305A130701 and R305A150221) and Nicholas Ialongo (R305A080326), and the National Institute of Mental Health (T32 MH019545-23) awarded to Philip Leaf.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stacy R. Johnson
    • 1
    • 4
  • Elise T. Pas
    • 2
  • Catherine P. Bradshaw
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicholas S. Ialongo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mental HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mental HealthBloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human Services, Curry School of EducationUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Kennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA

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