“It’s Not Like Therapy”: Patient-Inmate Perspectives on Jail Psychiatric Services

Original Article

Abstract

Jails may serve an important public health function by treating individuals with psychiatric problems. However, scholars debate the service qualities that can best achieve this aim. Some suggest the possibility of comprehensive psychiatric services in jails, while others recommend a narrower focus on basic elements of care (assessments, medication management, and crisis intervention). To date, this debate remains uninformed by service recipients. This qualitative study addresses this gap by illuminating patient-inmate perspectives on jail psychiatric services. Patient-inmate experiences indicate that the jail environment is incongruent with the provision of comprehensive psychiatric services. Thus, program administrators would best serve patient-inmates by strengthening basic services and connections to community-based providers who can provide comprehensive and effective care.

Keywords

Mentally ill offenders Standards of care Mental health services Jails Inmates 

Notes

Funding

The research described was supported by Award Number T32AA007240, Graduate Research Training on Alcohol Problems, from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official view of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism or the National Institutes of Health. This work was also supported by the Institute for the Study of Societal Issues’ Center for Research on Social Change at the University of California, Berkeley.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Leah A. Jacobs and Sequoia N. J. Giordano declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2007). Position statement on psychiatric services in jails and prisons. Retrieved from https://psychiatry.org/File%20Library/About-APA/Organization-Documents-Policies/Policies/Position-2007-Jails-Prisons.pdf.
  3. Baillargeon, J., Penn, J. V., Knight, K., Harzke, A. J., Baillargeon, G., & Becker, E. A. (2010). Risk of reincarceration among prisoners with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(4), 367–374.  10.1007/s10488-009-0252-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Benner, P. (1994). Interpretive phenomenology: Embodiment, caring, and ethics in health and illness. London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Bewley, M. T., & Morgan, R. D. (2011). A national survey of mental health services available to offenders with mental illness: Who is doing what? Law and Human Behavior, 35(5), 351–363. doi: 10.1007/s10979-010-9242-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowen, R. A., Rogers, A., & Shaw, J. (2009). Medication management and practices in prison for people with mental health problems: A qualitative study. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 3, 24. doi: 10.1186/1752-4458-3-24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowring v. Godwin 551 F.2d 44 (1977). Retrieved from http://leagle.com/decision/1977595551F2d44_1587/BOWRING v. GODWIN.
  8. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2002). National jail census, 1999: Version 3. U.S. Department of Justice. doi: 10.3886/ICPSR03318.v3.
  9. Castillo, E. D., & Fiftal Alarid, F. (2011). Factors associated with recidivism among offenders with mental illness. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(1), 98–117. doi: 10.1177/0306624X09359502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community (Vol. xi). New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.Google Scholar
  12. Cloyes, K. G., Wong, B., Latimer, S., & Abarca, J. (2010). Time to prison return for offenders with serious mental illness released from prison: A survival analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(2), 175–187. doi: 10.1177/0093854809354370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cressey, D. R. (1959). Contradictory directives in complex organizations: The case of the prison. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4(1), 1–19. doi: 10.2307/2390646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. des Cruser, A., & Diamond, P. M. (1996). An exploration of social policy and organizational culture in jail-based mental health services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 24(2), 129–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dumont, D. M., Brockmann, B., Dickman, S., Alexander, N., & Rich, J. D. (2012). Public health and the epidemic of incarceration. Annual Review of Public Health, 33(1), 325–339. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031811-124614.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Estelle v. Gamble 429 U.S. 97 (1976). Retrieved from https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/429/97/case.html.
  17. Fellner, J. (2006). A corrections quandary: Mental illness and prison rules symposium: Pro se litigation ten years after AEDPA. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 41, 391–412.Google Scholar
  18. Felson, R. B., Silver, E., & Remster, B. (2012). Mental disorder and offending in prison. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(2), 125–143. doi: 10.1177/0093854811428565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldberg, R. W., Seybolt, D. C., & Lehman, A. (2002). Reliable self-report of health service use by individuals with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 53(7), 879–881. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.53.7.879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldstrom, I., Henderson, M. J., Male, M., & Manderscheid, R. W. (1998). Jail mental health services: A national survey. In center for mental health services, mental health, United States, 1998 (pp. 176–187). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  21. Goodman, L. A., Thompson, K. M., Weinfurt, K., Corl, S., Acker, P., Mueser, K. T., & Rosenberg, S. D. (1999). Reliability of reports of violent victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women with serious mental illness. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(4), 587–599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Helms, R., Gutierrez, R. S., & Reeves-Gutierrez, D. (2016). Jail mental health resourcing: A conceptual and empirical study of social determinants. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(9), 1036–1063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoy, J. (2014). The space between: Making room for the unique voices of mental health consumers within a standardized measure of mental health recovery. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41(2), 158–176. doi: 10.1007/s10488-012-0446-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Irwin, J. (1985). The jail: Managing the underclass in American Society. California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. James, D. J., & Glaze, L. E. (2006). Highlights mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: US Department of JusticeGoogle Scholar
  26. Jordan, M. (2011). The prison setting as a place of enforced residence, its mental health effects, and the mental healthcare implications. Health & Place, 17(5), 1061–1066. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jordan, M. (2012). Patients’/prisoners’ perspectives regarding the National Health Service mental healthcare provided in one Her Majesty’s Prison Service establishment. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 23(5/6), 722–739. doi: 10.1080/14789949.2012.733722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaba, F., Lewis, A., Glowa-Kollisch, S., Hadler, J., Lee, D., Alper, H., … Parsons, A. (2014). Solitary confinement and risk of self-harm among jail inmates. American Journal of Public Health, 104(3), 442–447.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Kita, E. (2011). Potential and possibility: Psychodynamic psychotherapy and social change with incarcerated patients. Clinical Social Work Journal, 39(1), 9–17.  10.1007/s10615-010-0268-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Langley v. Coughlin, 715 F. Supp. 522 (S.D.N.Y. 1989). Retrieved from http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/715/522/1763971/.
  32. Madrid v. Gomez, 889 F. Supp. 1146 (N.D. Cal. 1995). Retrieved from http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/889/1146/1904317/.
  33. Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Guassora, A. D. (2016). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: Guided by information power. Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 1753–1760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An Expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  35. Minton, T. D., & Zeng, Z. (2015). Jail inmates at midyear 2014. NCJ, 241264. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim14.pdf.
  36. Morgan, R. D., Rozycki, A. T., & Wilson, S. (2004). Inmate perceptions of mental health services. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(4), 389–396.  10.1037/0735-7028.35.4.389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nurse, J., Woodcock, P., & Ormsby, J. (2003). Influence of environmental factors on mental health within prisons: Focus group study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 327(7413), 480. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7413.480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 42(5), 533–544. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Porporino, F. J., & Motiuk, L. L. (1995). The prison careers of mentally disordered offenders. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 18(1), 29–44. doi: 10.1016/0160-2527(94)00025-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramalho, R., Adams, P., Huggard, P., & Hoare, K. (2015). Literature review and constructivist grounded theory methodology. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 16(3). Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/2313.
  41. Ruiz v. Estelle, 553 F. Supp. 567 (S.D. Tex. 1982). Retrieved from http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/553/567/1573868/.
  42. Steadman, H. J., McCarty, D. W., & Morrissey, J. P. (1989). The mentally ill in jail: Planning for essential services. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Steadman, H. J., Osher, F. C., Robbins, P. C., Case, B., & Samuels, S. (2009). Prevalence of serious mental illness among jail inmates. Psychiatric Services, 60(6), 761–765.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Steadman, H. J., & Veysey, B. M. (1997). Providing services for jail inmates with mental disorders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.antoniocasella.eu/archipsy/Steadman_1997.pdf.
  45. Sykes, G. M. (1958). The society of captives: A study of a maximum security Prison. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Teplin, L. A. (1990). Detecting disorder: the treatment of mental illness among jail detainees. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(2), 233–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Torrey, E. F. (1995). Jails and prisons–America’s new mental hospitals. American Journal of Public Health, 85(12), 1611–1613. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.85.12.1611.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Wacquant, L. (2002). The curious eclipse of prison ethnography in the age of mass incarceration. Ethnography, 3(4), 371–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ware, N. C., Tugenberg, T., & Dickey, B. (2004). Practitioner relationships and quality of care for low-income persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 55(5), 555–559. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.55.5.555.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Wright, N., Jordan, M., & Kane, E. (2014). Mental health/illness and prisons as place: Frontline clinicians׳ perspectives of mental health work in a penal setting. Health & Place, 29, 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social WorkUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.School of Social WelfareUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations