Keeping Clubhouses Open: Toward a Roadmap for Sustainability

  • Jay A. Gorman
  • Colleen E. McKay
  • Brian T. YatesEmail author
  • William H. Fisher
Original Article


Clubhouses are recovery centers that help persons with serious mental illness obtain and maintain community-based employment, education, housing, social integration, and other services. Key informants from U.S. clubhouses were interviewed to create a conceptual framework for clubhouse sustainability. Survival analyses tested this model for 261 clubhouses. Clubhouses stayed open significantly longer if they had received full accreditation, had more administrative autonomy, and received funding from multiple rather than sole sources. Cox regression analyses showed that freestanding clubhouses which were accredited endured the longest. Budget size, clubhouse size, and access to managed care did not contribute significantly to sustainability.


Clubhouse Psychiatric rehabilitation Sustainability Survival 



We thank Kathleen Calcerano for her research assistance in the qualitative study, Clubhouse Faculty for their participation in interviews, and all U.S. clubhouses for their contributions to the CPQ.

Supplementary material

10488_2016_766_MOESM1_ESM.docx (513 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 512 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay A. Gorman
    • 1
  • Colleen E. McKay
    • 2
  • Brian T. Yates
    • 3
    Email author
  • William H. Fisher
    • 4
  1. 1.Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA Medical CenterBedfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, The Program for Clubhouse Research, Systems and Psychosocial Advances Research CenterUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyAmerican UniversityWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.School of Criminology and Justice StudiesUniversity of Massachusetts LowellLowellUSA

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