Mental Health Care and Average Happiness: Strong Effect in Developed Nations

  • Giorgio TouburgEmail author
  • Ruut Veenhoven
Original Article


Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.


Subjective well-being Happiness Cross-national Public health Mental health care 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Organization & Personnel Management, Rotterdam School of ManagementErasmus UniversityRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organization (EHERO), Erasmus School of EconomicsErasmus UniversityRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Optentia Research ProgrammeNorth-West UniversityVanderbijlparkSouth Africa

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