Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 27–37 | Cite as

Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children: Visual versus Auditory Reinforcement

  • Thalía Fernández
  • Jorge Bosch-Bayard
  • Thalía Harmony
  • María I. Caballero
  • Lourdes Díaz-Comas
  • Lídice Galán
  • Josefina Ricardo-Garcell
  • Eduardo Aubert
  • Gloria Otero-Ojeda
Article

Abstract

Children with learning disabilities (LD) frequently have an EEG characterized by an excess of theta and a deficit of alpha activities. NFB using an auditory stimulus as reinforcer has proven to be a useful tool to treat LD children by positively reinforcing decreases of the theta/alpha ratio. The aim of the present study was to optimize the NFB procedure by comparing the efficacy of visual (with eyes open) versus auditory (with eyes closed) reinforcers. Twenty LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio were randomly assigned to the Auditory or the Visual group, where a 500 Hz tone or a visual stimulus (a white square), respectively, was used as a positive reinforcer when the value of the theta/alpha ratio was reduced. Both groups had signs consistent with EEG maturation, but only the Auditory Group showed behavioral/cognitive improvements. In conclusion, the auditory reinforcer was more efficacious in reducing the theta/alpha ratio, and it improved the cognitive abilities more than the visual reinforcer.

Keywords

Neurofeedback Visual versus auditory reinforcement Learning disabled children QEEG EEG-biofeedback 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thalía Fernández
    • 1
  • Jorge Bosch-Bayard
    • 1
  • Thalía Harmony
    • 1
  • María I. Caballero
    • 2
  • Lourdes Díaz-Comas
    • 3
  • Lídice Galán
    • 3
  • Josefina Ricardo-Garcell
    • 1
  • Eduardo Aubert
    • 3
  • Gloria Otero-Ojeda
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Neurobiología Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de NeurobiologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoJuriquillaMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad Autónoma de QuerétaroQuerétaroMexico
  3. 3.Centro de Neurociencias de CubaPlayaCuba
  4. 4.Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMexico

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