Slow breathing is widely applied to improve symptoms of hyperarousal, but it is unknown whether its beneficial effects relate to the reduction in respiration rate per se, or, to a lower inhalation/exhalation (i/e) ratio. The present study examined the effects of four ventilatory patterns on heart rate variability and self-reported dimensions of relaxation. Thirty participants were instructed to breathe at 6 or 12 breaths/min, and with an i/e ratio of 0.42 or 2.33. Participants reported increased relaxation, stress reduction, mindfulness and positive energy when breathing with the low compared to the high i/e ratio. A lower compared to a higher respiration rate was associated only with an increased score on positive energy. A low i/e ratio was also associated with more power in the high frequency component of heart rate variability, but only for the slow breathing pattern. Our results show that i/e ratio is an important modulator for the autonomic and subjective effects of instructed ventilatory patterns.
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This research was supported by research grants of FWO Flanders to I. Van Diest, and by IWT PhD grant to D. Widjaja.
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Van Diest, I., Verstappen, K., Aubert, A.E. et al. Inhalation/Exhalation Ratio Modulates the Effect of Slow Breathing on Heart Rate Variability and Relaxation. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 39, 171–180 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-014-9253-x
- Heart rate variability