A Possible Role for Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Physiological Responses to False Performance Feedback in 10 Mile Laboratory Cycling

Abstract

The study investigated responses to false feedback in laboratory cycling. Seven male competitive cyclists (age; M = 34.14 years, SD = 7.40) completed two ergometer time-trials, one each with false negative and false positive feedback (time ± 5 %). MANOVA indicated main effects for condition [F(17, 104) = 9.42, p < 0.001], and mile [F(153, 849) = 1.58, p < 0.001], but no interaction [F(153, 849) = 0.470, p = 1.00]. No between-condition differences in power (F = 0.129, p = 0.720) or time to completion (F = 1.011, p = 0.338) were observed. Positive feedback was associated with higher glucose (F = 25.988, p < 0.01), happiness (F = 6.097, p = 0.015) and calmness (F = 4.088, p = 0.045). Positive feedback was also associate with lower oxygen uptake (F = 8.830, p = 0.004), anxiety (F = 5.207, p = 0.024), gloominess (F = 6.322, p = 0.013), sluggishness (F = 11.650, p = 0.001), downheartedness (F = 15.844, p = 0.001), effort required to regulate emotion (F = 13.798, p = 0.001), and a trend towards lower lactate production (F = 3.815, p = 0.053). Data suggest that positive emotions and reduced metabolic cost of performance were associated with positive feedback.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Notes

  1. 1.

    If data do not conform to parametric assumptions, and arguably, all self-report data is ordinal and so fails at least one assumption from the outset, the researcher is faced with an option of running multiple non-parametric ANOVAs, or using MANOVA with some of the assumptions underpinning the test violated. A limitation of running multiple tests is that alpha across the study is increased. Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) argued that it is better to use MANOVA than multiple tests as it is relatively robust and so still works effectively even if one or more of the variables violate parametric assumptions. Further, they argue that the key reason for using MANOVA or multiple univariate test is a theoretical; a multivariate test should be used to answer a multivariate question.

  2. 2.

    An alternative explanation is that the same level of glucose was used in both conditions, but that more liver glucose was produced in the positive feedback condition (blood glucose levels rise in response to an exercise stimulus; Coker and Kjaer 2005). However, given the reduced oxygen uptake and ventilation also observed in the positive feedback condition, a lower metabolic cost of performance seems a more plausible explanation than that of an increase in glucose production.

References

  1. Beedie, C. J., & Foad, A. J. (2009). The placebo effect in sport. A brief review. Sports Medicine, 39, 313–329.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Beedie, C. J., Stuart, E. M., Coleman, D. A., & Foad, A. J. (2006). Placebo effect of caffeine in cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 38, 2159–2164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Beedie, C. J., Terry, P. C., & Lane, A. M. (2000). The profile of mood states and athletic performance: Two meta-analyses. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12, 49–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Benedetti, F. (2009). Placebo effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Buss, D. M. (2008). Evolutionary psychology. Boston: Pearson.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Coker, R. H., & Kjaer, M. (2005). Glucoregulation during exercise: The role of the neuroendocrine system. Sports Medicine, 35, 575–583.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Evans, D. (2003). Placebo: The belief effect. London: HarperCollins.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. H., & Clow, A. (2000). Mind, immunity and health. Boston: Free Association.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Flanagan, D. A. J., & Wagner, H. L. (1991). Expressed emotion and panic-fear in the prediction of diet treatment compliance. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 231–240. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1991.tb00941.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Foad, A. J., Beedie, C. J., & Coleman, D. A. (2008). Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40 km cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 40, 158–165.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gailliot, M. T., & Baumeister, R. F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303–327.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Jussim, L., & Harber, K. D. (2005). Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies: Knowns and unknowns, resolved and unresolved controversies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 131–155.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Lane, A. M., & Terry, P. C. (2000). The nature of mood: Development of a conceptual model with a focus on depression. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12, 16–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Lazarus, R. S. (2000). Cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 39–64). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  15. LeDoux, J. (1998). The emotional brain. London: Orion.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Matthews, G., Jones, D. M., & Chamberlain, A. G. (1990). Refining the measurement of mood: The UWIST mood adjective checklist. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 17–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mauger, A. R., Jones, A. M., & Williams, C. M. (2009). The effect of non-contingent and accurate performance feedback on pacing and time trial performance in 4 km track cycling. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Available at http://bjsportmed.com/content/early/2010/06/27/bjsm.2009.062844.abstract. Accessed November 4, 2010.

  18. Micklewright, D. E., Papadopoulou, E., Swart, J., & Noakes, T. (2010). Previous experience influences pacing during 20 km time trial cycling. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 952–960.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Moerman, D. E. (2002). Meaning, medicine and the placebo effect. Cambridge: Cambrideg University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., & Fogarty, G. J. (2003). Construct validity of the profile of mood states—adolescents for use with adults. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4, 125–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The support of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) UK is gratefully acknowledged (RES-060-25-0044: “Emotion regulation of others and self [EROS])”. We would like to thank Ross Cloak, Dr Paul Davis, Dr Tracey Devonport, Dr Helen Lane, Dr Karen Niven, and Prof Peter Totterdell who were involved in either data collection or early discussion on the design of the work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christopher J. Beedie.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Beedie, C.J., Lane, A.M. & Wilson, M.G. A Possible Role for Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Physiological Responses to False Performance Feedback in 10 Mile Laboratory Cycling. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 37, 269–277 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-012-9200-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Anxiety, beliefs
  • Belief effects
  • Glucose, placebo effects