Haloterrigena salifodinae sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a subterranean rock salt


A novel extremely halophilic strain, designated ZY19T, was isolated from a rock salt sample from Yunnan salt mine, PR China. Strain ZY19T is neutrophilic, non-motile and requires at least 10% (w/v) NaCl for growth. Optimal growth is observed at 20–25% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.5–8.0 and 42 °C. Mg2+ is not required for growth. The cells do not lyse in distilled water. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain ZY19T belongs to the genus Haloterrigena (Htg.) and is closely related to Haloterrigena salina XH-65T (98.5% sequence similarity) and Haloterrigena turkmenica DSM 5511T (97.9%). Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analysis showed that strain ZY19T clusters with the species Htg. salina and Htg. turkmenica forming an independent clade separated from other members of the genus. The value of genomic average nucleotide identity (ANI) between strains ZY19T and its close relative, Htg. salina XH-65T was 94.2%. DNA–DNA relatedness between strains ZY19T and Htg. salina XH-65T revealed by in silico DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) was 56.3%. Both the ANI value and the degree of in silico DDH are below the accepted threshold for members of the same species. The major polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, sulfated diglycosyl-diether-1 and mannose-2, 6-disulfate (1 → 2)-glucose glycerol diether. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 64.5 mol%. Based on the results of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genetic similarity and inferred phylogeny, strain ZY19T is distinct from other validly named species and thus represents a novel species within the genus Haloterrigena, for which the name Haloterrigena salifodinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZY19T (=CGMCC 1.16114T=NBRC 112981T).

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Fig. 1
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Fig. 3



Basic local alignment search tool


Average nucleotide identity


China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center


Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen


Dimethyl sulphoxide HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography


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We thank Professor Zhu L. Yang and Dr. Bang Feng from the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences for their helps in sample collection and data analysis, and we also thank Dr. Hao Yan from the College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, for his technical assistance.


This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31460003), the Anhui Provincial Key Lab. of the Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources (591601), the China Scholarship Council (201808340054) and the Department of Education Anhui Province, China.

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SC conceived the project, analysed the data, and drafted the manuscript. YX, SS and FC performed the experiment. YX and SS critically revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Shaoxing Chen.

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The cell morphology, thin-layer chromatogram of polar lipids and Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA and rpoB′ are available with the online supplementary material.

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Chen, S., Xu, Y., Sun, S. et al. Haloterrigena salifodinae sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a subterranean rock salt. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 112, 1317–1329 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-019-01264-w

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  • Halobacteria
  • Haloarchaea
  • Salt mine
  • Rock salt
  • Haloterrigena
  • Polyphasic taxonomy
  • Multilocus sequence analysis