The bacterial and archaeal community structures and methanogenic potential of the cecal microbiota of goats fed with hay and high-grain diets
The cecum plays an important role in the feed fermentation of ruminants. However, information is very limited regarding the cecal microbiota and their methane production. In the present study, the cecal content from twelve local Chinese goats, fed with either a hay diet (0% grain) or a high-grain diet (71.5% grain), were used to investigate the bacterial and archaeal community and their methanogenic potential. Microbial community analysis was determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR, and the methanogenesis potential was assessed by in vitro fermentation with ground corn or hay as substrates. Compared with the hay group, the high-grain diet significantly increased the length and weight of the cecum, the proportions of starch and crude protein, the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen, but decreased the pH values (P < 0.05). The high-grain diet significantly increased the abundances of bacteria and archaea (P < 0.05) and altered their community. For the bacterial community, the genera Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Treponema were significantly increased in the high-grain group (P < 0.05), while Akkermansia, Oscillospira, and Coprococcus were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). For the archaeal community, Methanosphaera stadtmanae was significantly increased in the high-grain group (P < 0.05), while Methanosphaera sp. ISO3-F5 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In the in vitro fermentation with grain as substrate, the cecal microorganisms from the high-grain group produced a significantly higher amount of methane and volatile fatty acids (P < 0.05), and produced significantly lower amount of lactate (P < 0.05). Conclusively, high-grain diet led to more fermentable substrates flowing into the hindgut of goats, resulting in an enhancement of microbial fermentation and methane production in the cecum.
KeywordsCecal microbiota Goat High-grain diet Methanogenic potential Miseq sequencing
This research was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0500505), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31301999).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Experiment Committee of Nanjing Agricultural University, in accordance with the Regulations for the Administration of Affairs Concerning Experimental Animals (The State Science and Technology Commission of China, 1988).
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