Hoeflea prorocentri sp. nov., isolated from a culture of the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum mexicanum PM01
A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, yellow-pigmented and non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated PM5-8T, was isolated from a culture of a marine toxigenic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum mexicanum PM01. Strain PM5-8T grew at 15–35 °C (optimum, 25–30 °C) and pH 6–11 (optimum, 7.5–8). Cells required at least 1.5% (w/v) NaCl for growth, and can tolerate up to 7.0% with the optimum of 4%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain PM5-8T is closely related to members of the genus Hoeflea, with high sequence similarities with Hoeflea halophila JG120-1T (97.06%) and Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30T (97.01%). DNA–DNA hybridization values between the isolate and other type strains of recognized species of the genus Hoeflea were between 11.8 and 25.2%, which is far below the value of 70% threshold for species delineation. The DNA G + C content was 50.3 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as summed feature 8 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c; 51.5%), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl (20.7%), C16:0 (17.2%) and C18:0 (5.7%). The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. Polar lipids profiles contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidylmono- methylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and four unidentified lipids. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data presented, strain PM5-8T (= CCTCC AB 2016294T = KCTC 62490T) represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoeflea prorocentri sp. nov. is proposed.
KeywordsHoeflea prorocentri sp. nov. Novel species Prorocentrum mexicanum Algal-associated bacterium
This work was supported by Talent Introduction Foundation of Zhejiang Ocean University (for Qiao Y.), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41206093 and 31470540), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LY18D060007), Scientific Instrument and Chemical Reagents Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (15142201600), and Municipal Public Welfare Project of Zhoushan (2017C32083). The authors also sincerely thank Prof. Hong-Nong Chou at Institute of Fisheries Science, National Taiwan University, for kindly providing Prorocentrum mexicanum PM01.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Doetsch RN (1981) Determinative methods of light microscopy. In: Gerdhardt P, Murray RGE, Costilow RN, Nester EW, Wood WA, Krieg NR, Phillips GB (eds) Manual of methods for general bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 21–33Google Scholar
- Ezaki T, Hashimoto Y, Yabuuchi E (1989) Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:224–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425Google Scholar
- Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids, MIDI Technical Note 101. MIDI Inc, NewarkGoogle Scholar
- Smibert RM, Krieg NR (1994) Phenotypic characterization: In: Methods for general and molecular bacteriology P. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Trüper HG, Pfennig N (1981) Isolation of members of the families Chromatiaceae and Chlorobiaceae. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The Prokaryotes: a handbook on habitats, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Springer, Berlin, pp 279–289Google Scholar
- Wayne LG, Brenner DJ, Colwell RR, Grimont PAD, Kandler O, Krichevsky MI, Moore LH, Moore WEC, Murray RGE, Stackebrandt E, Starr MP, Truper HG (1987) International committee on systematic bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464Google Scholar
- Wilson K (1987) Preparation of genomic DNA from bacteria. In: Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K (eds) Current protocols in molecular biology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar