Microbiota associated with tubes of Escarpia sp. from cold seeps in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean constitutes a community distinct from that of surrounding marine sediment and water
As the depth increases and the light fades in oceanic cold seeps, a variety of chemosynthetic-based benthic communities arise. Previous assessments reported polychaete annelids belonging to the family Siboglinidae as part of the fauna at cold seeps, with the ‘Vestimentifera’ clade containing specialists that depend on microbial chemosynthetic endosymbionts for nutrition. Little information exists concerning the microbiota of the external portion of the vestimentiferan trunk wall. We employed 16S rDNA-based metabarcoding to describe the external microbiota of the chitin tubes from the vestimentiferan Escarpia collected from a chemosynthetic community in a cold seep area at the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit (OTU) belonged to the family Pirellulaceae (phylum Planctomycetes), and the second most abundant OTU belonged to the order Methylococcales (phylum Proteobacteria), composing an average of 21.1 and 15.4% of the total reads on tubes, respectively. These frequencies contrasted with those from the surrounding environment (sediment and water), where they represent no more than 0.1% of the total reads each. Moreover, some taxa with lower abundances were detected only in Escarpia tube walls. These data constitute on the first report of an epibiont microbial community found in close association with external surface of a cold-seep metazoan, Escarpia sp., from a chemosynthetic community in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.
KeywordsChemosynthetic community Deep-sea Tube worms Pirellulaceae
We thank PETROBRAS for sponsoring this research and for the permission to publish this paper. João M. M. Ketzer and Eduardo Eizirik acknowledge support from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Luiz Gustavo A. Borges thanks PEGA/PUCRS. We thank the crew of the RV Marion Dufresne for their collaboration in the sampling process and the IPR scientific team Anderson Maraschin and Thais Martinho for image analysis. We thank professor Brasílio Ricardo Cirillo da Silva for statistical support. We also thank High Performance Computing Lab—LAD/PUCRS for allowing access to run the high-throughput sequences analyses.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Duperron S, de Beer D, Zbinden M, Boetius A, Schipani V, Kahil N et al (2009) Molecular characterization of bacteria associated with the trophosome and the tube of Lamellibrachia sp., a siboglinid annelid from cold seeps in the eastern Mediterranean. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 69:395–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levin LA (2005) Ecology of cold seep sediments: interactions of fauna with flow, chemistry and microbes. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 43:1–46Google Scholar
- López-García P, Gaill F, Moreira D (2002) Wide bacterial diversity associated with tubes of the vent worm Riftia pachyptila. Environ Microbiol 4:202–215Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring HarborGoogle Scholar
- Tavormina PL, Hatzenpichler R, McGlynn S, Chadwick G, Dawson KS, Connon SA et al (2015) Methyloprofundus sedimenti gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligate methanotroph from ocean sediment belonging to the ‘deep sea-1’ clade of marine methanotrophs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65:251–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thiel V, Hügler M, Blümel M, Baumann HI, Gärtner A, Schmaljohann R et al (2012) Widespread occurrence of two carbon fixation pathways in tubeworm endosymbionts: lessons from hydrothermal vent associated tubeworms from the Mediterranean Sea. Front Microbiol 3:423CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tunnicliffe V, Juniper K, Sibuet M (2003) Reducing environments of the deep-sea floor. In: Tyler PA (ed) Ecosystems of the deep oceans. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 81–110Google Scholar
- Ward N, Staley JT, Fuerst JA, Giovannoni S, Schlesner H, Stackerbrandt E (2006) The order Planctomycetales, including the genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata and Isosphaera and the Candidatus Genera Brocadia, Kuenenia and Scalindua. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer K-H, Stackebrandt E (eds) The prokaryotes. Springer, New York, pp 757–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar