Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 106, Issue 5, pp 993–1009 | Cite as

Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

  • Hyunmin Koo
  • Nazia Mojib
  • Robert W. Thacker
  • Asim K. Bej
Original Paper

Abstract

The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

Keywords

Oil spill Qiime Bioinformatics Biodegradative genes PCR Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria Pyrosequencing 

Supplementary material

10482_2014_268_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (320 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 320 kb)
10482_2014_268_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (266 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 267 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyunmin Koo
    • 1
  • Nazia Mojib
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert W. Thacker
    • 1
  • Asim K. Bej
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Red Sea Research CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)ThuwalSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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