Skip to main content

Aquimarina atlantica sp. nov., isolated from surface seawater of the Atlantic Ocean

Abstract

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain 22II-S11-z7T, which was isolated from the surface seawater of the Atlantic Ocean. The bacterium was found to be Gram-negative, oxidase negative and catalase positive, long-rod shaped, and gliding. Growth was observed at salinities of 1–5 % and at temperatures of 10–41 °C. The isolate was capable of hydrolysing gelatin and Tween 80 and able to reduce nitrate to nitrite, but unable to degrade aesculin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 22II-S11-z7T belongs to the genus Aquimarina, with highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina megaterium XH134T (98.31 %), followed by Aquimarina macrocephali JAMB N27T (96.59 %); other species of the genus Aquimarina shared 93.63–96.08 % sequence similarity. The ANI value between strain 22II-S11-z7T and A. megaterium XH134T was found to be 91.86–91.81 %. The DNA–DNA hybridization estimated value between strain 22II-S11-z7T and A. megaterium XH134T was 47.7 ± 2.6 %. The principal fatty acids were identified as Summed Feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/ω6c, as defined by the MIDI system; 8.1 %), SummedFeature 9 (iso-C17:1 ω7c/C16:110-methyl; 6.8 %), iso-C15:0 G (11.3 %), iso-C15:0 (24.9 %), iso-C16:0 (5.7 %), C16:0 (5.2 %), iso-C15:0 3OH (6.4 %) and iso-C17:0 3OH (21.5 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 32.99 mol %. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6 (100 %). Phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, five unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids were found to be present. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain 22II-S11-z7T represents a novel species within the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina atlantica sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 22II-S11-z7T (=MCCC 1A09239T = KCTC 42003T).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Abbreviations

MCCC:

Marine Culture Collection of China

References

  • Auch AF, Klenk HP, Goker M (2010a) Standard operating procedure for calculating genome-to-genome distances based on high-scoring segment pairs. Stand Genomic Sci 2:142–148

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Auch AF, von Jan M, Klenk HP, Goker M (2010b) Digital DNA–DNA hybridization for microbial species delineation by means of genome-to-genome sequence comparison. Stand Genomic Sci 2:117–134

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman J, Smith JA, Struhl K (2002) Short protocols in molecular biology: a compendium of methods from current protocols in molecular biology. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen WM, Sheu FS, Sheu SY (2012) Aquimarina salinaria sp. nov., a novel algicidal bacterium isolated from a saltpan. Arch Microbiol 194:103–112

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen Y, Shao J, Zhu W, Jia LS, Chen XS (2013) Identification of risk factors for respiratory complications in upper cervical spinal injured patients with neurological impairment. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 47:111–117

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dong X, Cai M (2001) Determinative manual for routine bacteriology. Scientific Press (English translation), Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  • Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goris J, Konstantinidis KT, Klappenbach JA, Coenye T, Vandamme P, Tiedje JM (2007) DNA–DNA hybridization values and their relationship to whole-genome sequence similarities. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:81–91

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy J, Margassery LM, O’Leary ND, O’Gara F, Morrissey J, Dobson AD (2014) Aquimarina amphilecti sp. nov., isolated from the sponge Amphilectus fucorum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:501–505

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim O-S, Cho Y-J, Lee K, Yoon S-H, Kim M, Na H, Park S-C, Jeon YS, Lee J-H, Yi H (2012) Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:716–721

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewin RA (1969) A classification of flexibacteria. J Gen Microbiol 58:189–206

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lin B, Lu G, Zheng Y, Xie W, Li S, Hu Z (2012) Aquimarina agarilytica sp. nov., an agarolytic species isolated from a red alga. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:869–873

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu C, Shao Z (2005) Alcanivorax dieselolei sp. nov., a novel alkane-degrading bacterium isolated from sea water and deep-sea sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1181–1186

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luo R, Liu B, Xie Y, Li Z, Huang W, Yuan J, He G, Chen Y, Pan Q, Liu Y, Tang J, Wu G, Zhang H, Shi Y, Liu Y, Yu C, Wang B, Lu Y, Han C, Cheung DW, Yiu SM, Peng S, Xiaoqian Z, Liu G, Liao X, Li Y, Yang H, Wang J, Lam TW, Wang J (2012) SOAPdenovo2: an empirically improved memory-efficient short-read de novo assembler. Gigascience 1:18

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meier-Kolthoff JP, Auch AF, Klenk HP, Goker M (2013) Genome sequence-based species delimitation with confidence intervals and improved distance functions. BMC Bioinform 14:60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miyazaki M, Nagano Y, Fujiwara Y, Hatada Y, Nogi Y (2010) Aquimarina macrocephali sp. nov., isolated from sediment adjacent to sperm whale carcasses. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:2298–2302

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nedashkovskaya OI, Kim SB, Lysenko AM, Frolova GM, Mikhailov VV, Lee KH, Bae KS (2005) Description of Aquimarina muelleri gen. nov., sp. nov., and proposal of the reclassification of [Cytophaga] latercula Lewin 1969 as Stanierella latercula gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:225–229

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nedashkovskaya OI, Vancanneyt M, Christiaens L, Kalinovskaya NI, Mikhailov VV, Swings J (2006) Aquimarina intermedia sp. nov., reclassification of Stanierella latercula (Lewin 1969) as Aquimarina latercula comb. nov. and Gaetbulimicrobium brevivitae Yoon et al. 2006 as Aquimarina brevivitae comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Aquimarina. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:2037–2041

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oh Y-S, Kahng H-Y, Lee YS, Yoon B-J, Lim S-B, Jung JS, Oh D-C, Lee D-H (2010) Aquimarina litoralis sp. nov., Isolated from a Coastal Seawater. J Microbiol 48:433–437

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park SC, Choe HN, Baik KS, Seong CN (2012) Aquimarina mytili sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of a mussel, Mytilus coruscus, and emended description of Aquimarina macrocephali. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:1974–1979

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park SC, Choe HN, Baik KS, Seong CN (2013) Aquimarina gracilis sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of a mussel, Mytilus coruscus, and emended description of Aquimarina spongiae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:1782–1787

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richter M, Rossello-Mora R (2009) Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:19126–19131

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rzhetsky A, Nei M (1992) Statistical properties of the ordinary least-squares, generalized least-squares, and minimum-evolution methods of phylogenetic inference. J Mol Evol 35:367–375

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor

    Google Scholar 

  • Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. MIDI Technical Note 101. Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, DE, USA

  • Shieh WY, Chen Y-W, Chaw S-M, Chiu H–H (2003) Vibrio ruber sp. nov., a red, facultatively anaerobic, marine bacterium isolated from sea water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:479–484

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skerman V (1967) A guide to the identification of the genera of bacteria: with methods and digests of generic characteristics. Williams & Wilkins Co, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  • Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wayne L, Brenner D, Colwell R, Grimont P, Kandler O, Krichevsky M, Moore L, Moore W, Murray R, Stackebrandt E (1987) Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yi H, Chun J (2011) Aquimarina addita sp. nov., isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:2445–2449

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yoon JH, Kang SJ, Jung SY, Oh HW, Oh TK (2006) Gaetbulimicrobium brevivitae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:115–119

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yoon BJ, You HS, Lee DH, Oh DC (2011) Aquimarina spongiae sp. nov., isolated from marine sponge Halichondria oshoro. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:417–421

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yu T, Yin Q, Song X, Zhao R, Shi X, Zhang XH (2013) Aquimarina longa sp. nov., isolated from seawater, and emended description of Aquimarina muelleri. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:1235–1240

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yu T, Zhang Z, Fan X, Shi X, Zhang X-H (2014) Aquimarina megaterium sp. nov., isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:122–127

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by COMRA program (No. DY125-15-R-01), Public Welfare Project of SOA (201005032) and National Infrastructure of Natural Resources for Science and Technology Program of China (No. NIMR-2013-9). We thank Professor Zhang X.H. for generous gift of A. megaterium XH134T.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zongze Shao.

Additional information

Guizhen Li and Qiliang Lai are contributed equally to this work.

The GenBank accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Aquimarina atlantica 22II-S11-z7T is KF906719. Transmission electron micrographs of cells of strain 22II-S11-z7T, polar lipids of strain 22II-S11-z7T, Maximum-Likelihood tree and Minimum Evolution tree are available as supplementary figures in ANTO Online.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 546 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, G., Lai, Q., Sun, F. et al. Aquimarina atlantica sp. nov., isolated from surface seawater of the Atlantic Ocean. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 106, 293–300 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-014-0196-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-014-0196-2

Keywords

  • Aquimarina atlantica sp. nov.
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Taxonomy
  • Surface seawater