Gramella planctonica sp. nov., a zeaxanthin-producing bacterium isolated from surface seawater, and emended descriptions of Gramella aestuarii and Gramella echinicola

Abstract

A Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic, zeaxanthin-producing, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain which is motile by gliding, designated CC-AMWZ-3T, was isolated from surface seawater off coastal Kending, Taiwan. Strain CC-AMWZ-3T was found to share 93.3 % and 96.0–92.4 % pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gramella echinicola KMM 6050T and other Gramella species, respectively, and formed distinct phyletic lineage during phylogenetic analysis. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c and iso-C17:1 ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl. Polar lipids were found to include phosphatidylethanolamine, six unidentified lipids and three unidentified aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.6 mol%. Menaquinone-6 was the sole respiratory quinone identified and triamine-sym-homospermidine was the predominant polyamine. Based on the polyphasic characteristics that are in line with those of Gramella species, in addition to distinguishing phylogenetic and phenotypic features, strain CC-AMWZ-3T appears to represent a novel species of the genus Gramella, for which the name Gramella planctonica sp. nov. (type strain CC-AMWZ-3T = JCM 18807T = BCRC 80553T) is proposed. In addition, emended descriptions of the species Gramella aestuarii and Gramella echinicola are also proposed.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge Prof. Hans G. Trüper for nomenclatural advice and etymology. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C. under the ATU plan.

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Correspondence to Chiu-Chung Young.

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Light and transmission electron micrographs of cells of strain CC-AMWZ-3T and polyamine data of all three strains are available as Supplementary Material with the online version of this paper.

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Shahina, M., Hameed, A., Lin, SY. et al. Gramella planctonica sp. nov., a zeaxanthin-producing bacterium isolated from surface seawater, and emended descriptions of Gramella aestuarii and Gramella echinicola . Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105, 771–779 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-014-0133-4

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Keywords

  • Filamentous
  • Carotenoid
  • Flavobacteriaceae
  • Organic matter
  • Ecophysiological