Skip to main content

Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)


A novel, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL006T was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens, Black soldier fly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006T showed 96.4 % similarity to that of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica S5T. Strain KBL006T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1–2 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were positive. The major fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c, C14:0, and C16:0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol, and two phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.2 mol%. Based on these polyphasic data, strain KBL006T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Wohlfahrtiimonas, for which the name Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL006T (= KACC 16839T = JCM 18424T).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2








PL1 and PL2:

Unknown phospholipids


  • Almuzara MN, Palombarani S, Tuduri A, Figueroa S, Gianecini A, Sabater L, Ramirez MS, Vay CA (2011) First case of fulminant sepsis due to Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica. J Clin Microbiol 49:2333–2335

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Collins MD, Jones D (1981a) Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication. Microbiol Rev 45:316–354

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Collins MD, Jones D (1981b) A note on the separation of natural mixtures of bacterial ubiquinones using reverse-phase partition thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. J Appl Bacteriol 51:129–134

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diener S, Zurbrügg C, Tockner K (2009) Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates. Waste Manag Res 27:603–610

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hall TA (1999) BIOEDIT: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jeon H, Park S, Choi J, Jeong G, Lee SB, Choi Y, Lee SJ (2011) The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens. Curr Microbiol 62:1390–1399

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kamekura M (1993) Lipids of extreme halophiles. In: Vreeland RH, Hochstein LI (eds) The biology of halophilic bacteria. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 135–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim OS, Cho YJ, Lee K, Yoon SH, Kim M, Na H, Park SC, Jeon YS, Lee JH, Yi H, Won S, Chun J (2012) Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:716–721

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kluge AG, Farris FS (1969) Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Syst Zool 18:1–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mesbah M, Whitman WB (1989) Measurement of deoxyguanosine/thymidine ratios in complex mixtures by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of the mole percentage guanine + cytosine of DNA. J Chromatogr 479:297–306

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • MIDI (1999) Sherlock microbial identification system operating manual, version 3.0. MIDI, Inc. In, Newark

    Google Scholar 

  • Oren A, Duker S, Ritter S (1996) The polar lipid composition of walsby’s square bacterium. FEMS Microbiol Lett 138:135–140

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rebaudet S, Genot S, Renvoise A, Fournier PE, Stein A (2009) Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica bacterium in homeless woman. Emerg Infect Dis 15:985–987

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. MIDI Inc, Newark

    Google Scholar 

  • Smibert RM, Krieg NR (1994) Phenotypic characterization. In: Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Wood WA, Krieg NR (eds) Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 603–711

    Google Scholar 

  • Suzuki MT, Giovannoni SJ (1996) Bias caused by template annealing in the amplication of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:625–630

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tindall BJ (1990) Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusprofundi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66:199–202

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tindall BJ, Rosselló-Móra R, Busse HJ, Ludwig W, Kämpfer P (2010) Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:249–266

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tittsler RP, Sandholzer LA (1936) The use of semi-solid agar for the detection of bacterial motility. J Bacteriol 31:575–580

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tóth E, Kovács G, Schumann P, Kovács AL, Steiner U, Halbritter A, Márialigeti K (2001) Schineria larvae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from 1st and 2nd larval stages of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:401–407

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tóth EM, Borsodi AK, Euzeby JP, Tindall BJ, Márialigeti K (2007) Proposal to replace the illegitimate genus name Schineria Tóth et al. 2001 with the genus name Ignatzschineria gen. nov. and to replace the illegitimate combination Schineria larvae Tóth et al. 2001 with Ignatzschineria larvae comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:179–180

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tóth EM, Schumann P, Borsodi AK, Keki Z, Kovács AL, Márialigeti K (2008) Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new gammaproteobacterium isolated from Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:976–981

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (1991) 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 173:697–703

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • West PA, Colwell RR (1984) Identification and classification of Vibrionaceae––an overview. In: Colwell RR (ed) Vibrios in the Environment. Wiley, New York, pp 285–363

    Google Scholar 

  • Xin H, Itoh T, Zhou P, Suzuki K, Kamekura M, Nakase T (2000) Natrinema versiforme sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from Aibi salt lake, Xinjiang. China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1297–1303

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank Drs. Jin-Woo Bae and Seong Woon Roh for experimental advices. The G + C content analysis was done at Jeju center, Korean Basic Sciences Institute. This work was supported by the Rural Development Administration in Korea (PJ006893). JK Lee thanks to graduate student scholarship of Lotte foundation. SJ Lee thanks to support by NRF 2010-0010779.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sung-Jae Lee.

Additional information

The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006T is JN873914.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lee, J.K., Lee, Y.Y., Park, K.H. et al. Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105, 15–21 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae
  • Hermetia illucens
  • Larval gut microorganism
  • Polyphasic taxonomy