In this study, we report on the bacterial community associated with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from symptomatic pine wilted trees, as well as from long-term preserved B. xylophilus laboratory collection specimens, emphasizing the close bacteria–nematode associations that may contribute to pine wilt disease development.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ashelford KE, Chuzhanova NA, Fry JC, Jones AJ, Weightman AJ (2005) At least 1 in 20 16S rRNA sequence records currently held in public repositories is estimated to contain substantial anomalies. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:7724–7736
Bai Y, Souleimanov A, Smith DL (2002) An inducible activator produced by a Serratia proteamaculans strain and its soybean growth-promoting activity under greenhouse conditions. J Exp Bot 53:1495–1502
Barash I, Manulis-Sasson S (2009) Recent evolution of bacterial pathogens: the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans case. Annu Rev Phytopathol 47:133–152
Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98
Han ZM, Hong YD, Zhao BG (2003) A study on pathogenicity of bacteria carried by pine wood nematodes. J Phytopathol 151:683–689
Hongoh Y, Yuzawa H, Ohkuma M, Kudo T (2003) Evaluation of primers and PCR conditions for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes from a natural environment. FEMS Microbiol Lett 221:299–304
Kawazu K, Zhang H, Kanzaki H (1996a) Accumulation of benzoic acid in suspension cultured cells of Pinus thunbergii Parl. in response to phenylacetic acid administration. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:1410–1412
Kawazu K, Zhang H, Yamashita H, Kanzaki H (1996b) Relationship between the pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and phenylacetic acid production. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:1413–1415
Kiyohara T, Tokushige Y (1971) Inoculation experiments of a nematode, Bursaphelenchus sp., onto pine trees. J Jpn For Sci 53:210–218
Kwon H, Choi G, Choi Y, Jang K, Sung N, Kang M, Moon Y, Lee S, Kim J (2010) Suppression of pine wilt disease by an antibacterial agent, oxolinic acid. Pest Manag Sci 66:634–639
Laranjo M, Machado J, Young J, Oliveira S (2004) High diversity of chickpea Mesorhizobium species isolated in a Portuguese agricultural region. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 48:101–107
Li H (2007) Identification and pathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae). Ph.D. thesis, University of Ghent
Mohamed ZK, El-wahab GS (2009) Potency evaluation of Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas fluorescens as biocontrol agents for root-knot nematodes in Egypt. J Appl Sci Res 4:93–102
Mota M, Braasch H, Bravo M, Penas A, Burgermeister W, Metge K, Sousa E (1999) First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology 1:727–734
Oku H, Shiraishi T, Kurozumi S (1980) Pine wilt toxin, the metabolite of a bacterium associated with a nematode. Naturwissenschaften 67:198–199
Proença DN, Francisco R, Santos CV, Lopes A, Fonseca L, Abrantes IM, Morais PV (2010) Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease. PLoS ONE 5:e15191
Rodrigues J (2008) National eradication programme for pinewood nematode. In: Vieira P, Mota M (eds) Pine wilt disease: a worldwide threat to forest ecosystems. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 5–14
Staden R (1996) The Staden sequence analysis package. Mol Biotechnol 5:233–241
Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599
Xie B, Cheng X, Shi J, Zhang Q, Dai S, Cheng F, Luo Y (2009) Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China. Sci China C 52:587–594
Zhao B, Lin F (2005) Mutualistic symbiosis between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. For Pathol 35:339–345
Zhao B, Ang H, An S, An Z (2003) Distribution and pathogenicity of bacteria species carried by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in China. Nematology 5:899–906
This work was supported by the Portuguese Project Programa de Acção Nacional para Controlo do Nemátodo da Madeira do Pinheiro: “A doença do nemátode da madeira do pinheiro Bursaphelenchus xylophilus” from Instituto de Financiamento da Agricultura e Pescas (IFAP) and Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN). The authors wish to thank Isabel Abrantes, Paula Morais and their research team from University of Coimbra (Coimbra, Portugal), for the support given in the sampling collection.
About this article
Cite this article
Vicente, C.S.L., Nascimento, F., Espada, M. et al. Bacteria associated with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus collected in Portugal. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 100, 477–481 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-011-9602-1
- Pine wilt disease
- Bursaphelenchus xylophilus