Social media adoption and use for improved emergency services operations: the case of the NSW SES

Abstract

Despite the exponential growth of social media in emergency services design and delivery, academic research and managerial practice have paid little attention to how to adopt and use it to transform operations and enhance organizational performance. This paper aims to provide some insights of a longitudinal case study of the adoption and use of social media technologies by the New South Wales (NSW) state emergency service (SES) in Australia. The study identifies a set of internal and external factors explaining the adoption and use of social media by the NSW SES including: the social media bandwagon effect, the effectiveness of social media use during the January 2011 Queensland floods, the NSW state strategic planning on emergency services, the opportunity offered by the upgrade of the NSW SES web site, and a strong internal management leadership toward the use of social media to support emergency operations. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aizcorbe, A. M., Moylan, C. E., & Robbins, C. A. (2009). Toward better measurement of innovation and intangibles. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 89(1), 10–23.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Akter, S., Bhattacharyya, M., Wamba, S. F., & Aditya, S. (2016). How does social media analytics create value? Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), 28(3), 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Albert, S., Ashforth, B. E., & Dutton, J. E. (2000). Organizational identity and identification: Charting new waters and building new bridges. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 13–17.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Allen, D. K., Karanasios, S., & Norman, A. (2014). Information sharing and interoperability: The case of major incident management. European Journal of Information Systems, 23(4), 418–432.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Altay, N., & Pal, R. (2014). Information diffusion among agents: Implications for humanitarian operations. Production and Operations Management, 23(6), 1015–1027.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ansell, C., Boin, A., & Keller, A. (2010). Managing transboundary crises: Identifying the building blocks of an effective response system. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 18(4), 195–207.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Anson, S., Watson, H., Wadhwa, K., & Metz, K. (2017). Analysing social media data for disaster preparedness: Understanding the opportunities and barriers faced by humanitarian actors. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 21, 131–139.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Benbasat, I., Goldstein, D. K., & Mead, M. (1987). The case research strategy in studies of information systems. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 369–386.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bockius, C. (2012). 2012 Is the year for firm-wide adoption of social media.

  10. Burke, W. Q., Fields, D. A., & Kafai, Y. B. (2010). Entering the clubhouse: Case studies of young programmers joining the online scratch communities. textitJournal of Organizational and End User. Computing, 22, 21.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Candace Deans, P. (2011). The impact of social media on C-level. MIS Quarterly Executive, 10(4), 187–200.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Carley, K. M., Malik, M., Landwehr, P. M., Pfeffer, J., & Kowalchuck, M. (2016). Crowd sourcing disaster management: The complex nature of twitter usage in padang indonesia. Safety Science, 90, 48–61.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Chan, H. K., Wang, X., Lacka, E., & Zhang, M. (2016). A mixed-method approach to extracting the value of social media data. Production and Operations Management, 25(3), 568–583.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chatfield, T. A., Fosso Wamba, S., & Tatano, H. (2010). E-government challenge in disaster evacuation response: The role of Rfid technology in building safe and secure local communities. In The 43rd Hawaii international conference on system sciences, Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii (pp. 1–10).

  15. Coles, J. B., Zhang, J., & Zhuang, J. (2017). Bridging the research-practice gap in disaster relief: Using the Ifrc code of conduct to develop an aid model. Annals of Operations Research, 1–21. doi:10.1007/s10479-017-2488-1.

  16. Colman, H. L. (2008). Organizational identity and value creation in post-acquisition integration: The spiralling interaction of the target’s contributive and the acquirer’s absorptive capacities. Dissertation, BI Norwegian School of Management, Department of Strategy and Logistics, Oslo. https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/94332/2008-07-colman.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

  17. Cui, R., Gallino, S., Moreno, A., & Zhang, D. J. (2017). The operational value of social media information. Production and Operations Management. doi:10.1111/poms.12707.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Culnan, M. J., McHugh, P. J., & Zubillaga, J. I. (2010). How large U.S. companies can use twitter and other social media to gain business value. MIS Quarterly Executive, 9(4), 243–259.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Dantas, A., & Seville, E. (2006). Organisational issues in implementing an information sharing framework: Lessons from the matata flooding events in New Zealand. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(1), 38–52.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Darke, P., Shanks, G., & Broadbent, M. (1998). Successfully completing case study research: Combining rigour, relevance and pragmatism. Information Systems Journal, 8(4), 273–289.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Darrow, B. (2017). Linkedin Claims Half a Billion Users. http://fortune.com/2017/04/24/linkedin-users/.

  22. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Fiol, C. M. (2001). Revisiting an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 27(6), 691–699.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Fisher, L. (2011). The key trends in social commerce. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2011/03/08/the-key-trends-in-social-commerce/.

  25. Flew, T., Bruns, A., Burgess, J., Ben-Harush, O., Potter, E., & Newton, J. (2015). Support frameworks for the use of social media by emergency management organisations. Brisbane City: Digital Media Research Centre, Centre for Emergency and Disaster Management, Queensland University of Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Fosso Wamba, S., & Carter, L. (2014). Social media tools adoption and use by SMEs: An empirical study. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 26(2), 1–17.

  27. Fosso Wamba, S., Edwards, A., & Sharma, R. (2012). ‘Big Data’ as a strategic enabler of superior emergency service management: Lessons from the New South Wales State Emergency Service. In ICIS 2012 MIS Quarterly Executive Workshop. USA: Orlando.

  28. Fosso Wamba, S., & Edwards, A. J. (2014). Factors related to social media adoption and use for emergency services operations: The case of the NSW SES. In 20th Americas conference on information systems. Savannah, Georgia, USA.

  29. Gal, U., Lyytinen, K., & Yoo, Y. (2008). The dynamics of it boundary objects, information infrastructures, and organisational identities: The introduction of 3d modelling technologies into the architecture, engineering, and construction industry. European Journal of Information Systems, 17, 290–304.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Gallaugher, J., & Ransbotham, S. (2011). Social media and customer dialog management at Starbucks. MIS Quarterly Executive, 4, 197–212.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Guillamón, M.-D., Ríos, A.-M., Gesuele, B., & Metallo, C. (2016). Factors influencing social media use in local governments: The case of Italy and Spain. Government Information Quarterly, 33, 460–471.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gupta, R., & Brooks, H. (2013). Using social media for global security. Indianapolis: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Hameed, M. A., Counsell, S., & Swift, S. (2012). A conceptual model for the process of it innovation adoption in organizations. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 29(3), 358–390.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hamm, B. (2012). The police, social media and the Queensland floods. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from http://www.smk.net.au/article/the-police-social-media-and-the-queensland-floods.

  35. Husin, M. H., & Hanisch, J. (2011). Utilising the social media and organisation policy (Someop) framework: An Example of organisational policy development within a public sector entity. In V. Tuunainen, J. Nandhakumar, M. Rossi, & W. Soliman (Eds.) 19th European conference on information systems (pp. 3096–3107), Helsinki, Finland.

  36. Jeyaraj, A., Rottman, J. W., & Lacity, M. C. (2006). A review of the predictors, linkages, and biases in it innovation adoption research. Journal of Information Technology, 21(1), 1–23.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kavanaugh, A. L., Fox, E. A., Sheetz, S. D., Yang, S., Li, L. T., Shoemaker, D. J., et al. (2012). Social media use by government: From the routine to the critical. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 480–491.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Keating, B. W., Coltman, T. R., Fosso-Wamba, S., & Baker, V. (2010). Unpacking the Rfid investment decision. Proceedings of the IEEE, 98(9), 1672–1680.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Kiron, D., Palmer, D., Phillips, A. N., & Kruschwitz, N. (2012). What managers really think about social business. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4), 51–59.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Landwehr, P. M., Wei, W., Kowalchuck, M., & Carley, K. M. (2016). Using tweets to support disaster planning, warning and response. Safety Science, 90, 33–47.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Magnusson, M., Bellström, P., & Thoren, C. (2012). Facebook usage in government—A case study of information content. In 18th Americas conference on information systems (AMCIS 2012) (pp. 1–10), Seattle, Washington, USA.

  42. Mergel, I. (2016). Social media institutionalization in the U.S. federal government. Government Information Quarterly, 33(1), 142–148.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Michaelidou, N., Siamagka, N. T., & Christodoulides, G. (2011). Usage, barriers and measurement of social media marketing: An exploratory investigation of small and medium B2b brands. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(7), 1153–1159.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Naranjo-Gil, D. (2009). The influence of environmental and organizational factors on innovation adoptions: Consequences for performance in public sector organizations. Technovation, 29(12), 810–818.

    Google Scholar 

  45. NSW Government. (2011). NSW (2012): A plan to make NSW number one. Department of Premier and Cabinet (ed.).

  46. NSW SES. (2011). Social Networking Policy. Wollongong, Australia.

  47. NSW SES. (2016). Annual Report 2015-16. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from https://www.ses.nsw.gov.au/media/1225/nswses_annual_report_2015_16_8mb.pdf.

  48. Oloruntoba, R., Hossain, G. F., & Wagner, B. (2016). Theory in humanitarian operations research. Annals of Operations Research, 1–18. doi:10.1007/s10479-016-2378-y.

  49. Pan, G., Pan, S.-L., & Lim, C.-Y. (2015). Examining how firms leverage it to achieve firm productivity: Rbv and dynamic capabilities perspectives. Information & Management, 52(4), 401–412.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Pedraza-Martinez, A. J., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2016). Empirically grounded research in humanitarian operations management: The way forward. Journal of Operations Management, 45, 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Picazo-Vela, S., Gutiérrez-Martinez, I., & Luna-Reyes, L. F. (2011). Social media in the public sector: Perceived benefits, costs and strategic alternatives. In 12th Annual international conference on digital government research (dg.o 2011) (pp. 198–203), College Park, MD, USA: ACM.

  52. Ponserre, S., Guha-Sapir, D., Vos, F., & Below, R. (2012). Annual disaster statistical review 2011.

  53. Porter, M. E., & Millar, V. E. (1985). How information gives you competitive advantage. Harvard Business Review, 63(4), 149–160.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Reuter, C., & Spielhofer, T. (2016). Towards social resilience: A quantitative and qualitative survey on citizens’ perception of social media in emergencies in Europe. Technological Forecasting and Social Change).

  55. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovation. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Rosenkopf, L., & Abrahamson, E. (1999). Modeling reputational and informational influences in threshold models of bandwagon innovation diffusion. Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, 5(4), 361–384.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Samuel Fosso, W., Shahriar, A., Hyunjin, K., Mithu, B., & Mohammed, U. (2016). The primer of social media analytics. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), 28(2), 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Sandsmark, F. (2011). From social media to social commerce. Microsoft Global High Tech Summit II. Santa Clara, California, USA: Springer.

  59. Scholl, H. J., Patin, B. J., & Chatfield, A. T. (2012). Ict-enabled city government field operations: Resiliency during extreme events. In 45th Hawaii international conference on system sciences (HICSS-45) (pp. 2346–2356), Maui, HI, USA: IEEE.

  60. Scott, S. G., & Lane, V. R. (2000). A stakeholder approach to organizational identity. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 43–62.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Serafeimidis, V., & Smithson, S. (2003). Information systems evaluation as an organizational institution—Experience from a case study. Information Systems Journal, 13(3), 251–274.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Steininger, D. M., Wunderlich, P., & Pohl, F. (2013). Exploring competitive advantage of social networking sites: A business model perspective. In 21st European conference on information systems. Utrecht, Netherlands.

  63. Stieglitz, S., & Dang-Xuan, L. (2013). Emotions and information diffusion in social media-sentiment of microblogs and sharing behavior. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(4), 217–248.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Sushil. (2017). Theory Building Using Sap-Lap Linkages: An Application in the Context of Disaster Management,” Annals of Operations Research, 1–26. doi:10.1007/s10479-017-2425-3.

  65. Teece, D., Peteraf, M., & Leih, S. (2016). Dynamic capabilities and organizational agility: Risk, uncertainty, and strategy in the innovation economy. California Management Review, 58(4), 13–35.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Teodorescu, H.-N. (2015). Using analytics and social media for monitoring and mitigation of social disasters. Procedia Engineering, 107, 325–334.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Whetten, D. A. (2006). Albert and whetten revisited: Strengthening the concept of organizational identity. Journal of Management Inquiry, 15(3), 219–234.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Yates, D., & Paquette, S. (2011). Emergency knowledge management and social media technologies: A case study of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake. International Journal of Information Management, 31(1), 6–13.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Yoo, E., Rand, W., Eftekhar, M., & Rabinovich, E. (2016). Evaluating information diffusion speed and its determinants in social media networks during humanitarian crises. Journal of Operations Management, 45, 123–133.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Zaltman, G., Duncan, R., & Holbeck, J. (1973). Innovations and organizations. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Zhu, K., Dong, S., Xu, S. X., & Kraemer, K. L. (2006). Innovation diffusion in global contexts: Determinants of post-adoption digital transformation of european companies. European Journal of Information Systems, 15, 601–616.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Zhu, K., Kraemer, K., & Xu, S. (2003). Electronic business adoption by European firms: A cross-country assessment of the facilitators and inhibitors. European Journal of Information Systems, 12(4), 251–268.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Samuel Fosso Wamba.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Sample interview questions

  1. 1.

    Please can you comment on NSW SES vision/strategy around social media tools adoption and use?

  2. 2.

    Please tell us about the organizational environment that brought about the need to adopt and use social media tools.

  3. 3.

    What are the objectives of the agency social media initiative?

  4. 4.

    Comment on the use by the NSW SES of the following social media tools (e.g., not aware of this, do not have, but aware, have but do not regularly use, have and regularly use for firm purposes):

    • Facebook Company page; Facebook Group; Facebook Events Page; Twitter Channel; YouTube video/channel; Del.icio.us; LinkedIn; flickr; Other technology used (Please specify..............).

  5. 5.

    Please, can you comment on social media platform within the NSW SES (do you have integration of social platform with existing enterprise information systems?).

  6. 6.

    Do you take advantage of outside help to establish and/or maintain these tools?

  7. 7.

    Can you comment on the following dimensions related to social media adoption by the NSW SES

    1. a.

      Level of use (internal and external),

    2. b.

      Value/benefits (tangible and intangible),

    3. c.

      Risks.

  8. 8.

    Can you comment on the types of interactions current used through social media tools by NSW SES with key stakeholders:

    1. a.

      Volunteer (e.g., on the field, achievements, bond and identity to the NSW SES)

    2. b.

      Citizen (e.g., information (type???)

    3. c.

      Other agencies (e.g., collaboration, information sharing, coordination)

      1. i.

        Management of comments (e.g., visibility, possibility to post and add, follow, etc.)

      2. ii.

        Watching and listening to what fans or followers or members are posting

      3. iii.

        Problem identification and resolution.

  9. 9.

    Can you comment on the role of senior management (e.g., support, understanding of importance of social media tools to support SES strategy) during the adoption process of social media tools?

  10. 10.

    Can you Comment on the future and importance of social media tools within the NSW SES?

Appendix 2: The NSW SES organizational chart

figurea

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fosso Wamba, S., Edwards, A. & Akter, S. Social media adoption and use for improved emergency services operations: the case of the NSW SES. Ann Oper Res 283, 225–245 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-017-2545-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Disaster management
  • Emergency service
  • Social media
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Adoption
  • Use