Commuter cycling policy in Singapore: a farecard data analytics based approach
- 484 Downloads
Peak-hour week-day traffic congestion is a common challenge in urban mobility. Promotion of commuter cycling can help in alleviating this problem in many cities. This paper takes a data analytics approach to propose policies for promoting commuter cycling in Singapore. It uses farecard data to assess the commuter cycling potential and develops a data-driven approach to policy making. A spatio-temporal analysis of farecard data helps in finding patterns in the potential demand for first-mile as well as end-to-end cycling. This analysis is used to suggest policies like cycling towns to promote first-mile cycling and cycling regions to enable end-to-end cycling by linking together the cycling towns. Furthermore, an optimization model is developed to make efficient choice of cycling towns and links for a given budget so as to maximize the potential number of commuter cyclists.
KeywordsCommuter cycling policy Farecard analytics Singapore transportation Urban mobility
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Singapore-MIT alliance for research and technology (SMART) for this work. The authors also thank Professor Amedeo R. Odoni, MIT and professor Paul Barter, NUS, for their valuable advice.
- Andrade, K., & Kagaya, S. (2011). Cycling in Japan and Great Britain: A preliminary discussion. Research report, Louvain-la-Neuve. Belgium: European Regional Science Association.Google Scholar
- Barter, P. (2008). The status of bicycles in Singapore. Position paper draft. Singapore: Clean Air Initiative Asia.Google Scholar
- Brunsing, J. (1997). Public transport and cycling: experience of modal integration in Germany. In R. Tolley (Ed.), The greening of Urban transport: Planning for walking and cycling in western cities (pp. 357–370). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Buehler, R., & Pucher, J. (2010). Cycling to sustainability in Amsterdam. Sustain, 21, 35–40.Google Scholar
- Cheong, C. C., & Toh, R. (2010) Household interview surveys from 1997–2008—A decade of changing travel behaviors. Journeys, 52–61.Google Scholar
- Ellison, R., & Greaves, S. (2011). Travel time competitiveness of cycling in Sydney. Working paper, Institute of Transport and Logistics, University of Sydney, Sydney: Institute of Transport and Logistics, University of Sydney.Google Scholar
- EZ-link. (2012). Key statistics and milestones. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from http://www.ezlink.com.sg/corporate/keystats.php.
- Heinen, E. (2011). Bicycle commuting. Delft: Delft university press.Google Scholar
- Heinen, E., Van Wee, B., & Maat, K. (2010). Commuting by bicycle: An overview of the literature. Transport Reviews, 30, 59–96.Google Scholar
- Keijer, M. J. N., & Rietveld, P. (2000). How do people get to the railway station? The Dutch experience. Transportation Planning and Technology,23, 215–235.Google Scholar
- Koh, P. P., Wong, Y. D., Chandrasekar, P. & Ho. S. T. (2011). Walking and cycling for sustainable mobility in Singapore. In 12th international walk 21 conference (pp. 1–16). Vancouver: Walk 21 conference.Google Scholar
- Krizek, K., & Stonebraker, E. W. (2010). Bicycling and transit: A marriage unrealized. Transportation Research Record, 2144, 161–167.Google Scholar
- Lee, D. H., Sun, L. & Erath, A. (2012). Study of bus service reliability in Singapore using fare card data. In The 12th Asia Pacific ITS forum & exhibition. Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
- LTA. (2010, July 15). News releases. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from http://www.lta.gov.sg/content/dam/ltaweb/corp/GreenTransport/files/Changi-Simei-Bedok-Marina-Bay-To-Have-Cycling-Infrastructure-By-2014.pdf.
- LTA. (2011). Annual report 2009/10. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.lta.gov.sg/content/dam/ltaweb/corp/PublicationsResearch/files/AnnualReports/0910/LTA-AR09-10.pdf.
- LTA. (2012a, July 25). Adding bicycle racks at MRT stations. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from http://www.lta.gov.sg/content/ltaweb/en/roads-and-motoring/projects/road-and-commuter-facilities/adding-bicycle-racks-at-mrt-stations.html.
- LTA. (2012b, September). ANNEX A: Implementation timelines for cycling paths. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from http://www.lta.gov.sg/content/dam/ltaweb/corp/GreenTransport/files/implementation-timeline-cycling-path-sept2012.pdf.
- LTA. (2012c). Annual report 2010/11. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.lta.gov.sg/content/dam/ltaweb/corp/PublicationsResearch/files/AnnualReports/1011/LTA-AR10-11.pdf.
- Martens, K. (2004). The bicycle as a feedering mode: experiences from three European countries. Transportation Research D, 9, 281–294.Google Scholar
- Midgley, P. (2011). Bicycle-sharing schemes: Enhancing sustainable mobility in Urban areas. New York: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Commission on sustainable development.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Transport. (2011, July). Land transport: overview. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://app.mot.gov.sg/Land_Transport/Making_Public_Transport_a_Choice_Mode/Overview.aspx.
- Ministry of Transport. (2012). Land transport: Cycling. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://app.mot.gov.sg/Land_Transport/Meeting_Diverse_Needs/Cycling.aspx.
- Moreno Miranda, L. F., & Nosal, T. (2011). Weather or not to cycle: Temporal trends and impact of weather on cycling in an urban environment. Transportation Research Record, 2247, 42–52.Google Scholar
- Nankervis, M. (1999). The effect of weather and climate on bicycle commuting. Transportation Research A, 33,, 417–431.Google Scholar
- National Parks. (2012, October 7). Par connector network. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from http://www.nparks.gov.sg.
- Prakasam, S. (2009). Evolution of E-payments in public transport-Singapore’s Experience. Journeys, 53.Google Scholar
- Pucher, J., & Buehler, R. (2008). Making cycling irresistible: Lessons from Europe. Transport Reviews.Google Scholar
- Pucher, J., Dill, J., & Handy, S. (2010). Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Preventive Medicine, 50 106–125.Google Scholar
- Rietveld, P. (2001). Biking and walking: Position of non-motorized modes in transport systems. In J. B. Kenneth & D. A. Hensher (Eds.), Handbook of transport systems and traffic control (pp. 299–319). Punta Gorda, FL: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
- Shanmugaratnam. (2012, March). Retreived September 25, 2012, from http://www.mot.gov.sg/news/Budget_Debate_Round_Up_Speech.pdf.