American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 56, Issue 3–4, pp 217–228 | Cite as

Effects of Communities That Care on Males’ and Females’ Drug Use and Delinquency 9 Years After Baseline in a Community-Randomized Trial

  • Sabrina OesterleEmail author
  • J. David Hawkins
  • Margaret R. Kuklinski
  • Abigail A. Fagan
  • Christopher Fleming
  • Isaac C. Rhew
  • Eric C. Brown
  • Robert D. Abbott
  • Richard F. Catalano
Original Article


This study tested sustained effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on health-risking behaviors 9 years after baseline in a community-randomized trial involving 24 towns in seven states. Earlier analyses found sustained effects on abstinence from drug use and delinquency through Grade 12 in a panel of fifth graders. At age 19, 91 % (n = 3986) of the living panel completed the survey. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. The prevalence of lifetime and current substance use and delinquency were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included substance use disorders, major depression, suicidality, educational attainment, and sexual risk behaviors. CTC had a significant overall effect across lifetime measures of the primary outcomes for males, but not for females or the full sample, although lifetime abstinence from delinquency in the full sample was significantly higher in CTC communities (ARR = 1.16). Males in CTC communities also continued to show greater lifetime abstinence from cigarette smoking (ARR = 1.22). CTC did not have a sustained effect on current substance use and delinquency nor did it improve the secondary outcomes at age 19 for either gender. Communities using CTC may need to extend their prevention planning to include the high school years to sustain effects on drug use and delinquency beyond high school for both genders.

Trial Registration identifier: NCT01088542.


Prevention Sustained effects Delinquency Drug use Gender differences 



This work was supported by a research grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA015183), with co-funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Society for Community Research and Action 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina Oesterle
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. David Hawkins
    • 1
  • Margaret R. Kuklinski
    • 1
  • Abigail A. Fagan
    • 2
  • Christopher Fleming
    • 1
  • Isaac C. Rhew
    • 3
  • Eric C. Brown
    • 4
  • Robert D. Abbott
    • 5
  • Richard F. Catalano
    • 1
  1. 1.Social Development Research Group, School of Social WorkUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology, Criminology and LawUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of Prevention Science and Community Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  5. 5.Educational Psychology, College of EducationUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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