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Table 4 Steps included in each reviewed framework

From: The Quality Implementation Framework: A Synthesis of Critical Steps in the Implementation Process

Framework phases and steps Van de Ven et al. (1989) Klein and Sorra (1996) Hawkins et al. (2002); Mihalic et al. (2004) Okumus (2003) Rogers (2003) PfS (2003) Chinman et al. (2004) Greenhalgh et al. (2004) Rycroft-Malone (2004)
Phase One: Initial considerations
1. Needs and resources assessment    X   X X X   
2. Fit assessment   X X X X   X X  
3. Capacity/readiness assessment    X    X X X  
4. Possibility for adaptation X     X   X X  
5. Buy-in; supportive climate X X X X X X X X X
6. General org. capacity building    X    X X X X
7. Staff recruitment/maintenance    X X X X X   
8. Pre-innovation training   X X X X X X X  
Phase Two: Structure for implementation
9. Implementation teams X   X   X X   X  
10. Implementation plan    X X   X X   
Phase Three: Ongoing support strategies
11. TA/coaching/supervision X X X    X   X  
12. Process evaluation X X X X   X X X X
13. Feedback mechanism    X X    X X X
Phase Four: Improving future applications
14. Learning from experience   X      X   
Framework phases and steps Spoth et al. (2004); Spoth and Greenberg (2005) Fixsen et al. (2005) Glisson and Schoenwald (2005) Greenberg et al. (2005) Sandler et al. (2005) Hall and Hord (2006) Stith et al. (2006) Kilbourne et al. (2007)
Phase One: Initial considerations
1. Needs and resources assessment X X X X   X X X
2. Fit assessment   X X X X   X X
3. Capacity/readiness assessment   X   X   X X  
4. Possibility for adaptation X X   X X X X X
5. Buy-in; supportive climate   X X X   X X X
6. General org. capacity building X      X X  
7. Staff recruitment/maintenance X X     X X  
8. Pre-innovation training X X X X X X X X
Phase Two: Structure for implementation
9. Implementation teams X X   X X X X  
10. Implementation plan   X    X X   X
Phase Three: Ongoing support strategies
11. TA/coaching/supervision X X X X X X X X
12. Process evaluation X X X X X X X X
13. Feedback mechanism X X X X X   X  
Phase Four: Improving future applications
14. Learning from experience    X X     X
Framework phases and steps Walker and Koroloff (2007) Durlak and DuPre (2008) Feldstein and Glasgow (2008) Guldbrandsson (2008) Stetler et al. (2008) Wandersman et al. (2008) Damschroder et al. (2009) CASEL (2011)
Phase One: Initial considerations
1. Needs and resources assessment     X    X X
2. Fit assessment   X X      
3. Capacity/readiness assessment    X     X X
4. Possibility for adaptation X X X X X X X X
5. Buy-in; supportive climate X X X X X X X X
6. General org. capacity building X X X   X X X X
7. Staff recruitment/maintenance    X   X X   X
8. Pre-innovation training X X X X   X X X
Phase Two: Structure for implementation
9. Implementation Teams X X X   X   X X
10. Implementation plan X    X X   X X
Phase Three: Ongoing support strategies
11. TA/coaching/supervision X X X X X X   X
12. Process evaluation X X X X X X X X
13. Feedback mechanism X X X X X   X X
Phase Four: Improving future applications
14. Learning from experience    X      X