American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 41, Issue 1–2, pp 127–150 | Cite as

Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness

  • Fran H. Norris
  • Susan P. Stevens
  • Betty Pfefferbaum
  • Karen F. Wyche
  • Rose L. Pfefferbaum
Original Paper

Abstract

Communities have the potential to function effectively and adapt successfully in the aftermath of disasters. Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, we present a theory of resilience that encompasses contemporary understandings of stress, adaptation, wellness, and resource dynamics. Community resilience is a process linking a network of adaptive capacities (resources with dynamic attributes) to adaptation after a disturbance or adversity. Community adaptation is manifest in population wellness, defined as high and non-disparate levels of mental and behavioral health, functioning, and quality of life. Community resilience emerges from four primary sets of adaptive capacities—Economic Development, Social Capital, Information and Communication, and Community Competence—that together provide a strategy for disaster readiness. To build collective resilience, communities must reduce risk and resource inequities, engage local people in mitigation, create organizational linkages, boost and protect social supports, and plan for not having a plan, which requires flexibility, decision-making skills, and trusted sources of information that function in the face of unknowns.

Keywords

Resilience Community resilience Disaster Preparedness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the United States Department of Homeland Security through the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), Grant number N00140510629. However, any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect views of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

References

  1. Abramowitz, S. (2005). The poor have become rich, and the rich have become poor: Collective trauma in the Guinean Languette. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 2106–2118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger, W. (2000). Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Progress in Human Geography, 24, 347–364.Google Scholar
  3. Ahern, J., & Galea, S. (2006). Social context and depression after a disaster: The role of income inequality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 766–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed, R., Seedat, M., van Niekerk, A., & Bulbulia, S. (2004). Discerning community resilience in disadvantaged communities in the context of violence and injury prevention. South African Journal of Psychology, 34, 386–408.Google Scholar
  5. Alkon, A. (2004). Place, stories, and consequences. Organization & Environment, 17, 145–169.Google Scholar
  6. Allenby, B., & Fink, J. (2005). Toward inherently secure and resilient societies. Science, 309, 1034–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Altman, I., & Low, S. (Eds.). (1992). Place attachment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barrera, M. (1986). Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 413–445.Google Scholar
  9. Beggs, J., & Haines, V. (1996). Situation contingencies surrounding the receipt of informal support. Social Forces, 75, 201–223.Google Scholar
  10. Benight, C. (2004). Collective efficacy following a series of natural disasters. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17, 401–420.Google Scholar
  11. Benight, C., McFarlane, A., & Norris, F. (2006). Formulating questions about postdisaster mental health. In F. Norris, S. Galea, M. Friedman, & P. Watson (Eds.), Methods for disaster mental health research (pp. 62–77). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bodin, P., & Wiman, B. (2004). Resilience and other stability concepts in ecology: Notes on their origin, validity, and usefulness. ESS Bulletin, 2, 33–43.Google Scholar
  13. Bolin, R., & Bolton, P. (1986). Race, religion, and ethnicity in disaster recovery. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  14. Bonanno, G. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonanno, G. (2005). Clarifying and extending the construct of adult resilience. American Psychologist, 60, 265–267.Google Scholar
  16. Bourdieu, P. (1985). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (p. 248). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  17. Bromet, E., Goldgaber, D., Carlson, G., Panina, N., Golovakha, E., Gluzman, S., et al. (2000). Children’s well-being 11 years after the Chornobyl catastrophe. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 563–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, D., & Kulig, J. (1996/97). The concept of resiliency: Theoretical lessons from community research. Health and Canadian Society, 4, 29–52.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, B., & Perkins, D. (1992). Disruptions in place attachments. In I. Altman & S. Low (Eds.), Place attachment (pp. 279–304). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bruneau, M., Chang, S., Eguchi, R., Lee, G., O’Rourke, T., Reinhorn, A., et al. (2003). A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake Spectra, 19, 733–752.Google Scholar
  21. Butler L., Morland L., & Leskin, G. (2007). Psychological resilience in the face of terrorism. In B. Bongar, L. Brown, L. Beutler, J. Breckenridge, & P. Zimbardo (Eds.), Psychology of terrorism (pp. 400–417). NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  23. Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J., & Abel, N. (2001). From metaphor to measurement: Resilience of what to what? Ecosystems, 4, 765–781.Google Scholar
  24. Centre for Community Enterprise. (2000). The community resilience manual. Port Alberni, BC: CCE Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Coles, E., & Buckle, P. (2004). Developing community resilience as a foundation for effective disaster recovery. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 19, 6–15.Google Scholar
  26. Comfort, L. (2005). Risk, security, and disaster management. Annual Review of Political Science, 8, 335–356.Google Scholar
  27. Cottrell, L., Jr. (1976). The competent community. In B. Kaplan, R. Wilson, & A. Leighton (Eds.), Further explorations in social psychiatry (pp. 195–209). New York: Basic Books, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Couto, R. (1989). Catastrophe and community empowerment: The group formulations of Aberfan’s survivors. Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 236–248.Google Scholar
  29. Cowen, E. (1983). Primary prevention in mental health: Past, present, future. In R. Felner, L. Jason, J. Moritsugu, & S. Farber (Eds.), Preventive psychology: Theory, research, and practice in community intervention (pp. 11–25). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cowen, E. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 149–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cowen, E. (2000). Community psychology and routes to psychological wellness. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology (pp. 79–99). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Cowen, E. (2001). Ethics in community mental health care: The use and misuse of some positively valenced community concepts. Community Mental Health Journal, 37, 3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cox, H., & Holmes, C. (2000). Loss, healing, and the power of place. Human Studies, 23, 63–78.Google Scholar
  34. Cutter, S., Boruff, B., & Shirley, W. L. (2003). Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 242–261.Google Scholar
  35. Cutter, S., Emrich, C., Mitchell, J., Boruff, B., Gall, M., Schmidtlein, M., et al. (2006). The long road home: Race, class, and recovery from Hurricane Katrina. Environment, 48, 10–20.Google Scholar
  36. De Girolamo, G., & McFarlane, A. (1996). The epidemiology of PTSD: A comprehensive review of the international literature. In A. Marsella, M. Friedman, E. Gerrity, & R. Surfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 33–85). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  37. de Vries, M. (1995). Culture, community and catastrophe. Issues in understanding communities under difficult conditions. In S. Hobfoll & M. de Vries (Eds.), Extreme stress and communities: Impact and intervention (pp. 375–393). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  38. Dohrenwend, B. S. (1978). Social stress and community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Draper, J., McCleery, G., & Schaedle, R. (2006). Mental health services support in response to September 11: The central role of the Mental Health Association of New York City. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), 9/11: Mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks (pp. 282–310). New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Bennett, T. L. (1990). Differentiating the cognitive and behavioral aspects of social support. In B. Sarason, I. Sarason, & G. Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 267–296). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Edelstein, M. (1988). Contaminated communities: The social and psychological impacts of residential toxic exposure. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  42. Edelstein, M., & Wandersman, A. (1987). Community dynamics in coping with toxic contaminants. In I. Altman & A. Wandersman (Eds.), Neighborhood and community environments (pp. 69–112). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  43. Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Sroufe, L. (1993). Resilience as process. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 517–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elrod, C., Hamblen, J., & Norris, F. (2006). Challenges in implementing disaster mental health programs: State program directors’ perspectives. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 152–170.Google Scholar
  45. Erikson, K. (1976). Loss of communality at Buffalo Creek. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 302–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Flynn, B. (1994). Mental health services in large scale disasters: An overview of the Crisis Counseling Program. NCPTSD Clinical Quarterly, 4, 11–12.Google Scholar
  47. Fritz, C., & Williams, H. (1957). The human being in disasters: A research perspective. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 309, 42–51.Google Scholar
  48. Fullilove, M., & Saul, J. (2006). Rebuilding communities post-disaster in New York. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), 9/11: Mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks (pp. 164–177). New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  49. Galea, S., Ahern, J., & Karpati, A. (2005). A model of underlying socioeconomic vulnerability in human populations: Evidence from variability in population health and implications for public health. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 2417–2430.Google Scholar
  50. Galea, S., & Norris, F. (2006). Public mental health surveillance and monitoring. In F. Norris, S. Galea, M. Friedman, & P. Watson (Eds.), Methods for disaster mental health research (pp. 177–193). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  51. Galea, S., & Resnick, H. (2005). Psychological consequences of mass trauma in the general population. CNS Spectrums, 10, 107–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ganor, M., & Ben-Lavy, Y. (2003). Community resilience: Lessons derived from Gilo under fire. Journal of Jewish Communal Service, Winter/Spring, 105–108.Google Scholar
  53. Gibbon, M., Labonte, R., & Laverack, G. (2002). Evaluating community capacity. Health and Social Care in the Community, 10, 485–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gillespie, D., & Murty, S. (1994). Cracks in a postdisaster service delivery network. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 639–660.Google Scholar
  55. Gist, R., & Stolz, S. (1982). Mental health promotion and the media: Community response to the Kansas City hotel disaster. American Psychologist, 37, 1136–1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Godschalk, D. (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities. Natural Hazards Review, 4, 136–143.Google Scholar
  57. Goodman, R., Speers, M., McLeroy, K., Fawcett, S., Kegler, M., Parker, E., et al. (1998). Identifying and defining the dimensions of community capacity to provide a basis for measurement. Health Education & Behavior, 25, 258–278.Google Scholar
  58. Gordon, J. (1978). Structures. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  59. Gottlieb, B. (1996). Theories and practices of mobilizing support in stressful circumstances. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Handbook of stress, medicine, and health (pp. 339–356). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  60. Gunderson, L. (2000). Ecological resilience—in theory and application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 425–429.Google Scholar
  61. Handmer, J., & Dovers, S. (1996). A typology of resilience: Rethinking institutions for sustainable development. Industrial and Environmental Crisis Quarterly, 9, 482–511.Google Scholar
  62. Harvey, J., Stein, S., Olsen, N., Roberts, R., Lutgendorf, S., & Ho, J. (1995). Narrative of loss and recovery from a natural disaster. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 313–330.Google Scholar
  63. Harvey, M. (1996). An ecological view of psychological trauma and trauma recovery. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 3–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hobfoll, S. (1988). The ecology of stress. New York: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  65. Hobfoll, S. (1998). Stress, culture, and community: The psychology and philosophy of stress. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  66. Hobfoll, S. (2006). Guiding community intervention following terrorist attack. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), 9/11: Mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks (pp. 215–228). New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  67. Hobfoll, S., Jackson, A., Hobfoll, I., Pierce, C., & Young, S. (2002). The impact of communal-mastery versus self-mastery on emotional outcomes during stressful conditions: A prospective study of Native American women. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 853–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hogan, B., Linden, W., & Najarian, B. (2002). Social support interventions: Do they work? Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 381–440.Google Scholar
  69. Holling, C. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 1–23.Google Scholar
  70. Kadushin, C. (2004). Too much investment in social capital? Social Networks, 26, 75–90.Google Scholar
  71. Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. (1993). A test of the social support deterioration model in the context of natural disaster. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 395–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. (1995). In search of altruistic community: Patterns of social support mobilization following Hurricane Hugo. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 447–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. (2000). Help-seeking comfort and receiving social support: The role of ethnicity and context of need. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 545–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. (2004). Social support in the aftermath of disasters, catastrophes, acts of terrorism: Altruistic, overwhelmed, uncertain, antagonistic, and patriotic communities. In R. Ursano, A. Norwood, & C. Fullerton (Eds.), Bioterrorism: Psychological and public health interventions (pp. 200–229). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Kawachi, I., & Subramanian, S. (2006). Measuring and modeling the social and geographic context of trauma: A multi-level modeling approach. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, 195–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kendra, J., & Wachtendorf, T. (2003). Elements of resilience after the World Trade Center disaster: Reconstituting New York City’s Emergency Operations Centre. Disasters, 27, 37–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kessler, R. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: The burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 4–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kimhi, S., & Shamai, M. (2004). Community resilience and the impact of stress: Adult response to Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon. Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 439–451.Google Scholar
  79. Klein, R., Nicholls, R., & Thomalla, F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: How useful is this concept? Environmental Hazards, 5, 35–45.Google Scholar
  80. Landau, J., & Saul, J. (2004). Facilitating family and community resilience in response to major disaster. In F. Walsh & M. McGoldrick (Eds.), Living beyond loss: Death in the family (pp. 285–309). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  81. Layne, C., Pynoos, R., Saltzman, W., Arslanagic, B., Black, M., Savjak, N., et al. (2001). Trauma/grief-focused group psychotherapy: School-based postwar intervention with traumatized Bosnian adolescents. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5, 277–290.Google Scholar
  82. Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Linley, P., & Joseph, S. (2005). The human capacity for growth through adversity. American Psychologist, 60, 262–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Litz, B. (2005). Has resilience to severe trauma been underestimated? American Psychologist, 60, 262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Longstaff, P. (2005). Security, resilience, and communication in unpredictable environments such as terrorism, natural disasters, and complex technology. Syracuse, New York: Author.Google Scholar
  86. Maguen, S. (November, 2005). The effects of perceived community cohesion on stress symptoms following a terrorist attack. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Traumatic Stress Studies, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar
  87. McFarlane, A. C., & Norris, F. (2006). Definitions and concepts in disaster research. In F. Norris, S. Galea, M. Friedman, & P. Watson (Eds.), Methods for disaster mental health research (pp. 3–19). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  88. Manzo, L., & Perkins, D. (2006). Finding common ground: The importance of place attachment to community participation and planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 20, 335–350.Google Scholar
  89. Masten, A., Best, K., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development & Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.Google Scholar
  90. Maton, K. (1988). Social support, organizational characteristics, psychological well-being, and group appraisal in three self-help group populations. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 53–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Maton, K., & Salem, D. (1995). Organizational characteristics of empowering community settings: A multiple case study approach. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 631–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Norris, F., Baker, C., Murphy, A., & Kaniasty, K. (2005a). Social support mobilization and deterioration after Mexico’s 1999 flood: Effects of context, gender, and time. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 15–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Norris, F., Friedman, M., & Watson, P. (2002a). 60,000 Disaster victims speak: Part II, summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry, 65, 240–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Norris, F., Friedman, M., Watson, P., Byrne, C., Diaz, E., & Kaniasty, K. (2002b). 60,000 Disaster victims speak: Part I, an empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981–2001. Psychiatry, 65, 207–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Norris, F., Hamblen J., Watson P., Ruzek J., Gibson L., Pfefferbaum B., et al. (2006). Toward understanding and creating systems of postdisaster care: A case study of New York’s response to the World Trade Center disaster. In E.C. Ritchie, P. Watson, & M. Friedman (Eds.), Interventions following mass violence and disasters: Strategies for mental health practices (pp. 343–364). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  96. Norris, F., & Kaniasty, K. (1996). Received and pereived social support in times of stress: A test of the social support deterioration deterrence model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 498–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Norris, F., Kaniasty, K., Murphy, A., Coronel-Ortis, D., & Perilla, J. (2001). Postdisaster social support in the United States and Mexico: Conceptual and contextual considerations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 23, 469–497.Google Scholar
  98. Norris, F., Phifer, J., & Kaniasty, K. (1994). Individual and community reactions to the Kentucky floods: Findings from a longitudinal study of older adults. In R. Ursano, B. McCaughey, & C. Fullerton (Eds.), Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos (pp. 378–400). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Norris, F., Watson, P., Hamblen, J., & Pfefferbaum, B. (2005b). Provider perspectives on disaster mental health services in Oklahoma City. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 10, 649–661.Google Scholar
  100. Oliver-Smith, A. (1986). The martyred city. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  101. Paton, D., & Johnston, D. (2001). Disasters and communities: Vulnerability, resilience, and preparedness. Disaster Prevention and Management, 10, 270–277.Google Scholar
  102. Paton, D., Millar, M., & Johnston, D. (2001). Community resilience to volcanic hazard consequences. Natural Hazards, 24, 157–169.Google Scholar
  103. Perez-Sales, P., Cervellon, P., Vazquez, C., Vidales, D., & Gaborit, M. (2005). Post-traumatic factors and resilience: The role of shelter management and survivours’ attitudes after the earthquakes in El Salvador (2001). Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15, 368–382.Google Scholar
  104. Perkins, D., Hughey, J., & Speer, P. (2002). Community psychology perspectives on social capital theory and community development practice. Journal of the Community Development Society, 33, 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Perkins, D., & Long, D. (2002). Neighborhood sense of community and social capital: A multi-level analysis. In A. Fisher, C. Sonn, & B. Bishop (Eds.), Psychological sense of community: Research, applications, and implications (pp. 291–318). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  106. Perkins, D., & Taylor, R. (1996). Ecological assessments of community disorder: Their relationship to fear of crime and theoretical implications. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 63–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pfefferbaum, B., Reissman, D., Pfefferbaum, R., Klomp, R., & Gurwitch, R. (2005). Building resilience to mass trauma events. In L. Doll, S. Bonzo, J. Mercy, & D. Sleet (Eds.), Handbook on injury and violence prevention interventions. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  108. Pooley, J., Cohen, L., & O’Connor, M. (2006). Community resilience and its link to individual resilience in the disaster experience of cyclone communities in northwest Australia. In D. Paton & D. Johnston (Eds.), Disaster resilience: An integrated approach (pp.161–170). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publishers.Google Scholar
  109. Quarantelli, E. (1986). What is disaster? The need for clarification in definition, conceptualization in research. In B. Sowder & M. Lystad (Eds.), Disasters and mental health: Selected contemporary perspectives (pp. 49–81). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  110. Quarantelli, E. (1989). Characteristics of citizen groups which emerge with respect to hazardous waste sites. In D. Peck (Ed.), Psychosocial effects of hazardous toxic waste disposal on communities (pp. 177–195). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.Google Scholar
  111. Quarantelli, E. (1994). Future disaster trends and policy implications for developing countries. Newark, DE: Disaster Research Center.Google Scholar
  112. Rappaport, J. (1995). Empowerment meets narrative: Listening to stories and creating settings. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 795–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Redlener, I., & Morse, S. (2006). Life under the “new normal”: Notes on the future of preparedness. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), 9/11: Mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks (pp. 592–604). New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  114. Reissman, D., Spencer, S., Tanielian, T., & Stein, B. (2005). Integrating behavioral aspects into community preparedness and response systems. In Y. Danieli, D. Brom, & J. Sills (Eds.), The trauma of terror: Sharing knowledge and shared care (pp. 707–720). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  115. Riad, J., Norris, F., & Ruback, R. B. (1999). Predicting evacuation in two major disasters: Risk perceptions, social influence, and access to resources. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 918–934.Google Scholar
  116. Rich, R., Edelstein, M., Hallman, W., & Wandersman, A. (1995). Citizen participation and empowerment: The case of local environmental hazards. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 657–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rook, K. (1992). Detrimental aspects of social relationships: Taking stock of an emerging literature. In H. Veiel & U. Baumann (Eds.), The meaning and measurement of social support (pp. 157–169). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing.Google Scholar
  118. Rose, G. (1981). Strategy of prevention: Lessons from cardiovascular disease. British Medical Journal, 282, 1847–1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rose, G. (2001) Sick individuals and sick populations. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 427–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rose, A. (2004). Defining and measuring economic resilience to disasters. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13, 307–314.Google Scholar
  121. Rose, A. (2005). Analyzing terrorist threats to the economy: A computable general equilibrium approach. In P. Gordon, J. Moore, & H. Richardson (Eds.), Economic impacts of terrorist attacks (pp. 196–217). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  122. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rutter, M. (1993). Resilience: Some conceptual considerations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 14, 626–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Saegert, S., & Winkel, G. (2004). Crime, social capital, and community participation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 219–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Silver, R. C., Holman, E. A., McIntosh, D., Poulin, M., & Gil-Rivas, V. (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1235–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Solomon, S., Bravo, M., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Canino, G. (1993) Effect of family role on response to disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 255–269.Google Scholar
  128. Sonn, C., & Fisher, A. (1998). Sense of community: Community resilient responses to oppression and change. Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 457–472.Google Scholar
  129. Tartaglia, S. (2006). A preliminary study for a new model of sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 25–36.Google Scholar
  130. Thorp, S., & Stein, M. (2005). Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning. PTSD Research Quarterly, 16, 1–7.Google Scholar
  131. Tierney, K., Bevc, C., & Kuligowski, E. (2006). Metaphors matter: Disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in Hurricane Katrina. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 57–81.Google Scholar
  132. Tse, S., & Liew, T. (2004). New Zealand experiences: How is community resilience manifested in Asian communities? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2, 1–8.Google Scholar
  133. Tobin, G., & Whiteford, L. (2002). Community resilience and volcano hazard: The eruption of Tungurahua and evacuation of the Faldas in Ecuador. Disasters, 26, 28–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Van den Eynde, J., & Veno, A. (1999). Coping with disastrous events: An empowerment model of community healing. In R. Gist & B. Lubin (Eds.), Response to disaster: Psychosocial, community, and ecological approaches (pp. 167–192). Philadelphia, PA: Bruner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  135. VanLandingham, M., Norris, F., Vu, L., & Fu, H. (2007). Katrina-related health impacts on Vietnamese New Orleanians: A longitudinal analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, New York (March).Google Scholar
  136. Vega, W. (1992). Theoretical and pragmatic implications of cultural diversity for community research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 375–391.Google Scholar
  137. Waller, M. (2001). Resilience in ecosystemic context: Evolution of the concept. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 290–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wandserman, A. (2000). Citizen participation. In A. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 87–90). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  139. Wandersman, A., & Florin, P. (2000). Citizen participation and community organizations. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology (pp. 247–272). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  140. Wellman, B., & Frank, K. (2001). Network capital in a multilevel world: Getting support from personal communities. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. Burt (Eds.), Social capital: Theory and research (pp. 233–273). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  141. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  142. Wisner, B. (2001). Risk and the neoliberal state: Why post-Mitch lessons didn’t reduce El Salvador’s earthquake losses. Disasters, 25, 251–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Working Group on Governance Dilemmas in Bioterrorism Response. (2004). Leading during bioattacks and epidemics with the public’s trust and help. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Stategy, Practice, and Science, 2, 25–39.Google Scholar
  144. Zautra, A., & Bachrach, K. (2000). Psychological dysfunction and well-being: Public health and social indicator approaches. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology (pp. 165–186). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fran H. Norris
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Susan P. Stevens
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Betty Pfefferbaum
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Karen F. Wyche
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Rose L. Pfefferbaum
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Dartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for PTSD (NCPTSD)VA Medical Center (116D)White River JunctionUSA
  3. 3.National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism College ParkUSA
  4. 4.University of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA
  5. 5.Terrorism and Disaster CenterNational Child Traumatic Stress NetworkOklahoma CityUSA
  6. 6.Phoenix CollegePhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations