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Table 2 Logistic regression results for attitudes toward payment in HIV research studies (Models 1–5) and multinomial logistic regression results for willingness to participate in HIV research studies without payment (Model 6), by sociodemographic characteristics, N = 292

From: Attitudes Toward Payment for Research Participation: Results from a U.S. Survey of People Living with HIV

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Considers payment a benefit to research participation Payment plays role in decision to participate in HIV research People should receive payment to participate in HIV research There should be standards/policies
for payment
Expects another
benefit from research
if not paid
Willing to participate in HIV research studies without payment (baseline = “no”)
“It Depends” “Yes”
OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CI RR CI RR CI
Age .988 [.935, 1.044] .985 [.951, 1.020] .964 [.902, 1.030] 1.009 [.979, 1.041] .987 [.959, 1.016] 1.006 [.971, 1.043] 1.024 [.989, 1.060]
Womana .592 [.248, 1.411] .569† [.307, 1.052] .442 [.137, 1.419] 1.070 [.618, 1.855] .586* [.347, .989] .987 [.505, 1.927] 2.045* [1.111, 3.764]
Race-ethnicityb               
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.036 [.315, 3.409] 1.098 [.487, 2.478] .910 [.176, 4.698] 1.371 [.673, 2.791] .862 [.439, 1.692] .598 [.251, 1.425] 1.054 [.494, 2.246]
 Hispanic/other 1.549 [.411, 5.833] 1.116 [.478, 2.604] .966 [.180, 5.194] 2.012† [.921, 4.390] .560† [.284, 1.102] .701 [.320, 1.535] .405* [.172, .955]
< Bachelor’s degreec 2.864 [.798, 10.285] 1.966† [.925, 4.181] 1.528 [.380, 6.154] 1.289 [.701, 2.369] .773 [.439, 1.362] .747 [.377, 1.479] .507* [.257, 1.000]
< Full-time employedd 4.795 [.604, 38.040] 1.475 [.595, 3.655] 2.956 [.343, 25.456] 1.036 [.502, 2.135] .953 [.481, 1.887] 3.611** [1.531, 8.520] 2.109† [.886, 5.024]
Census regione               
 Midwest 1.079 [.265, 4.392] 1.680 [.654, 4.310] 1.659 [.184, 14.910] .803 [.375, 1.717] 1.631 [.750, 3.549] .895 [.368, 2.180] .807 [.335, 1.940]
 Northeast .513 [.185, 1.419] 1.417 [.649, 3.100] .603 [.168, 2.160] .677 [.346, 1.323] 1.377 [.707, 2.683] .518 [.224, 1.200] .632 [.297, 1.348]
 West 1.176 [.337, 4.101] 1.737 [.767, 3.935] 3.035 [.345, 26.685] 1.072 [.535, 2.147] 1.495 [.777, 2.878] 1.250 [.579, 2.699] 1.146 [.532, 2.466]
Self-rated health 1.003 [.980, 1.026] .993 [.977, 1.010] 1.015 [.985, 1.046] 1.000 [.986, 1.014] .992 [.978, 1.006] 1.010 [.994, 1.027] 1.015† [.998, 1.031]
Constant 12.369† [.738, 207.190] 7.915* [1.182, 53.007] 32.789† [.905, 1187.550] 1.415 [.286, 7.002] 5.631* [1.178, 26.931] .345 [.056, 2.141] .161* [.026, .998]
R2 .072 .037 .087 .021 .033 .053
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, RR risk ratio
  2. areference = man; breference = non-Hispanic White; creference = bachelor’s degree or higher; dreference = employed full time; ereference = South
  3. p < .10, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001