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Effectiveness of HIV Stigma Interventions for Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) With and Without HIV in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

Abstract

Stigma may contribute to HIV disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM). This systematic review quantified the effects of HIV stigma interventions for MSM on stigma and sex risk. We conducted a systematic search to identify US-based studies published between 2000 and June 2019 focused on HIV and MSM, and either measured stigma pre-post or included a stigma intervention component. Twenty-nine articles, representing 26 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Random effect models showed no intervention effect for reducing stigma and a non-significant increase in HIV testing. Significant decreases in condomless sex with males, condomless sex with females, and substance-influenced sex were found. Few intervention studies measured stigma pre-post. Findings suggest that including a stigma reduction component in interventions can improve HIV testing and reduce sex risk for MSM. Developing interventions to address stigma may be important in decreasing HIV infection among MSM and ending the HIV epidemic.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

JG: data abstraction and analysis, writing; CRP: conceptualization, data abstraction and analysis, editing; MW: data abstraction, writing; CD: data abstraction, writing; DHM: conceptualization, writing; WJ: conceptualization, writing; JBD: developed and conducted literature search, writing, editing; LR: data abstraction, editing; AH: data abstraction; TB: data abstraction, editing; SF: conceptualization, editing; DH: conceptualization, data abstraction and analysis, writing, editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Darrel H. Higa.

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The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Supplementary Information

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Supplementary file1 (docx 77 kb)

Appendices

Appendix A

Search Methods

We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify interventions to address stigma among MSMs with or without HIV. Two separate searches were performed, (1) HIV interventions focusing on MSMs [search of the Prevention Research Synthesis project database] and (2) HIV interventions focusing on stigma [systematic search of online databases].

A. Search Strategy for Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Database

Five review searches of online databases:

  1. Risk reduction (RR), 1988–present

    1. MEDLINE (OVID)

    2. EMBASE (OVID)

    3. PsycINFO (OVID)

    4. Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest)

  2. Linkage to, retention in, and re-engagement to HIV care (LRC), 1996–Present

    1. MEDLINE (OVID)

    2. CINAHL (EBSCOhost)

    3. EMBASE (OVID)

    4. PsycINFO (OVID)

  3. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), 2000–present

    1. MEDLINE (OVID)

    2. EMBASE (OVID)

    3. PsycINFO (OVID)

    4. CINAHL (EBSCOhost)

  4. Medication adherence (MA), 1996–present

    1. MEDLINE (OVID)

    2. CINAHL (EBSCOhost)

    3. EMBASE (OVID)

    4. PsycINFO (OVID)

  5. Overview of reviews project (ORP), 1988–present

    1. MEDLINE (OVID)

    2. Cab global health (OVID)

    3. CINAHL (EBSCOhost)

    4. EMBASE (OVID)

    5. PsycINFO (OVID)

    6. Sociological abstracts (ProQuest)

Notes:

  • Each search update is implemented annually for the previous two years to cover publication lag.

  • The five searches as implemented in MEDLINE (OVID) are provided in this appendix. Searches tailored to the other databases are available from the corresponding author.

  • The manual search for citations includes a hand search of journals with a high yield of subject specific citations, contacts in the field and reference list checks.

  • More information on the search methods for the Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) database can be found here https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/dhap/prb/prs/index.html

Limits for all MEDLINE (OVID) searches:

No language limit [Year limits stated above]

Publication limits: clinical trial, controlled clinical trial, corrected and republished article, evaluation studies, journal article, meta-analysis, multicenter study, published erratum, randomized controlled trial, retraction of publication, review, systematic reviews, validation studies.

Query of the Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Database

First performed: October 2017 (approximately 85,000 citations).

Last performed: June 2019 (approximately 96,600 citations).

Three searches were performed in the PRS database using Registry criteria coding to capture HIV interventions for men who have sex with men (MSM) with the following parameters:

Published years: 2000–present.

Citations with the following coded information:

MSM intervention searches:

  1. 1.

    (MSM terms AND intervention terms) in title, abstract and keyword terms

  2. 2.

    Criteria = intervention AND (MSM terms in title, abstract or keyword terms)

  3. 3.

    Criteria = systematic review AND (MSM terms AND intervention terms in title/abstract/keyword)

  4. Terms for MSM:

    ▪ Gay*, homosexual*, bisexual, men who have sex with men, MSM*

  5. Terms for Interventions:

    ▪ Intervention*, RCT*, program, programs, clinical trial*, controlled trial*, control group*

Definitions for PRS project coded terms:

Systematic review coded as “A report of a review that describes an attempt to do a complete and thorough search of the literature. The review can include a quantitative (mathematical) synthesis (e.g., meta-analysis, cost effectiveness) or qualitative synthesis (e.g., descriptive summary)”.

PRS Database Searches

Risk reduction (RR) search—MEDLINE (OVID)

Key:

Term/ = MeSH/Index Term

* = focus.

/pc = prevention and control subheading.

$ = truncation word search.

ab = abstract field search

ti = title field search.

HIV/AIDS/STDs MeSH

  1. 1.

    *HIV infections/pc

  2. 2.

    *Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/pc

  3. 3.

    *Sexually transmitted diseases/pc

  4. 4.

    *Sexually transmitted diseases, bacterial/

  5. 5.

    *Sexually transmitted diseases, viral/

  6. 6.

    AIDS serodiagnosis/

  7. 7.

    *HIV seropositivity/

  8. 8.

    or/1–7

Prevention/Intervention/Evaluation/Education MeSH and Keywords

  1. 9.

    Primary prevention/

  2. 10.

    Preventive health services/

  3. 11.

    Health promotion/

  4. 12.

    Program evaluation/

  5. 13.

    Randomized controlled trials/

  6. 14.

    Clinical trials/

  7. 15.

    Evaluation studies/

  8. 16.

    Contact tracing/

  9. 17.

    Case management/

  10. 18.

    Needle-exchange programs/

  11. 19.

    Follow-up studies/

  12. 20.

    Longitudinal studies/

  13. 21.

    Multicenter studies/

  14. 22.

    Random allocation/

  15. 23.

    control group.ti,ab

  16. 24.

    control trial.ti,ab

  17. 25.

    controlled trial.ti,ab

  18. 26.

    (rct or rcts).ti,ab

  19. 27.

    case management.ti,ab

  20. 28.

    contact tracing.ti,ab

  21. 29.

    (counseling or counselling).ti,ab

  22. 30.

    (detox or detoxification).ti,ab

  23. 31.

    (drug$ adj4 treatment$).ti,ab

  24. 32.

    education$.ti,ab

  25. 33.

    (effect or effects or effective or effectiveness).ti,ab

  26. 34.

    efficacy.ti,ab

  27. 35.

    evaluation$.ti,ab

  28. 36.

    impact$.ti,ab

  29. 37.

    intervention$.ti,ab

  30. 38.

    needle exchang$.ti,ab

  31. 39.

    network$.ti,ab

  32. 40.

    outreach$.ti,ab

  33. 41.

    partner notification.ti,ab

  34. 42.

    (partner$ adj4 contact$ adj4 referral$).ti,ab

  35. 43.

    (notif$ adj4 partner$).ti,ab

  36. 44.

    prevention$.ti,ab

  37. 45.

    program$.ti,ab

  38. 46.

    random$.ti,ab

  39. 47.

    rehab$.ti,ab

  40. 48.

    skill$.ti,ab

  41. 49.

    syringe exchang$.ti,ab

  42. 50.

    methadone.ti,ab

  43. 51.

    test$.ti,ab

  44. 52.

    training.ti,ab

  45. 53.

    trial$.ti,ab

  46. 54.

    or/9–53

Behavior/Outcomes MeSH and Keywords

  1. 55.

    Behavior/

  2. 56.

    Behavior therapy/

  3. 57.

    Health behavior/

  4. 58.

    Health risk behavior/

  5. 59.

    Risk reduction behavior/

  6. 60.

    Risk-taking/

  7. 61.

    Contraception behavior/

  8. 62.

    Coitus/

  9. 63.

    Sexual abstinence/

  10. 64.

    Sexual behavior/

  11. 65.

    Sexual partners/

  12. 66.

    Safe sex/

  13. 67.

    Unsafe sex/

  14. 68.

    Heroin dependence/pc

  15. 69.

    Needle sharing/

  16. 70.

    Condoms/

  17. 71.

    Condoms, female/

  18. 72.

    Contraceptive devices, male/

  19. 73.

    Contraceptive devices, female/

  20. 74.

    Substance abuse, intravenous/pc

  21. 75.

    Substance-related disorders/pc

  22. 76.

    Cocaine-related disorders/pc

  23. 77.

    Health services/

  24. 78.

    heroin.ti,ab

  25. 79.

    cocaine.ti,ab

  26. 80.

    opiate$.ti,ab

  27. 81.

    opium.ti,ab

  28. 82.

    paraphernalia.ti,ab

  29. 83.

    (treatment$ adj2 entry).ti,ab

  30. 84.

    (treatment$ adj2 enter$).ti,ab

  31. 85.

    (abstin$ or abstain$).ti,ab

  32. 86.

    drug$.ti,ab

  33. 87.

    substance.ti,ab

  34. 88.

    (idu or idus or ivdu or ivdus).ti,ab

  35. 89.

    ((behavior$ or behaviour$ or activit$ or access$ or utiliz$ or use$ or using$ or test$ or risk$ or outcome$) adj4 (reduc$ or declin$ or chang$ or effect$ or increas$ or decreas$ or impact$ or modif$ or lower$ or maintain$ or maintenance)).ti,ab

  36. 90.

    bleach$.ti,ab

  37. 91.

    clean$.ti,ab

  38. 92.

    condom$.ti,ab

  39. 93.

    contracept$.ti,ab

  40. 94.

    crack$.ti,ab

  41. 95.

    disclos$.ti,ab

  42. 96.

    incidence.ti,ab

  43. 97.

    inject$.ti,ab

  44. 98.

    intention$.ti,ab

  45. 99.

    intercourse.ti,ab

  46. 100.

    needle$.ti,ab

  47. 101.

    infect$ adj4 (new$ or rate$ or declin$ or reduc$ or prevent$ or lower$ or decreas$).ti,ab

  48. 102.

    partner$.ti,ab

  49. 103.

    seroconver$.ti,ab

  50. 104.

    sex$.ti,ab

  51. 105.

    syring$.ti,ab

  52. 106.

    test$.ti,ab

  53. 107.

    or/55–106

  54. 108.

    8 and 54 and 107

Linkage To, Retention In, and Re-engagement in HIV Care (LRC) Search—MEDLINE (OVID)

Key:

Term/ = MeSH index term.

MeSH subheadings:

/co = complications.

/dt = drug therapy.

/di = diagnosis.

/nu = nursing.

/pc = prevention and control.

/px psychology.

/th = therapy.

/tm = transmission.

$ = word truncation search.

ab = abstract field search.

ti = title field search.

adj = adjacency word search.

HIV/HIV Positive Persons MeSH and Keywords

  1. 1.

    HIV infections/co, dt, di, nu, pc, px, th, tm

  2. 2.

    HIV infect$.ti,ab

  3. 3.

    (HIV adj4 diagnos$).ti,ab

  4. 4.

    HIV positiv$.ti,ab

  5. 5.

    (HIV adj4 care).ti,ab

  6. 6.

    (HIV adj4 treatment$).ti,ab

  7. 7.

    living with HIV.ti,ab

  8. 8.

    or/1–7

Linking/Retention in Care MeSH and Keywords

  1. 9.

    (access$ adj4 care).ti,ab

  2. 10.

    (access$ adj4 barrier$).ti,ab

  3. 11.

    (access$ adj4 (treatment or service$)).ti,ab

  4. 12.

    (barrier$ adj4 care).ti,ab

  5. 13.

    case management.ti,ab

  6. 14.

    case manager$.ti,ab

  7. 15.

    (decreas$ adj4 barrier$).ti,ab

  8. 16.

    (engag$ adj4 (care or service$)).ti,ab

  9. 17.

    (enroll$ adj4 care).ti,ab

  10. 18.

    ((enter$ or entry) adj4 care).ti,ab

  11. 19.

    ((enter$ or entry) adj4 service$).ti,ab

  12. 20.

    (improv$ adj4 access$).ti,ab

  13. 21.

    (improv$ adj4 retention).ti,ab

  14. 22.

    ((kept or keep$ or return$) adj4 appointment$).ti,ab

  15. 23.

    (link$ adj4 (retain$ or retent$)).ti,ab

  16. 24.

    (link$ adj4 care).ti,ab

  17. 25.

    (link$ adj4 case).ti,ab

  18. 26.

    (link$ adj4 treatment).ti,ab

  19. 27.

    (link$ adj4 service$).ti,ab

  20. 28.

    (outreach adj4 (care or link$ or program$)).ti,ab

  21. 29.

    ((provision or provid$) adj4 (care or service$)).ti,ab

  22. 30.

    (reduc$ adj4 barrier$).ti,ab

  23. 31.

    ((re engag$ or reengag$) adj4 (care or treatment or service$)).ti,ab

  24. 32.

    ((re enter$ or reenter$) adj4 (care or treatment or service$)).ti,ab

  25. 33.

    ((refer or refers or referred or referral$) adj4 (care or medical or treatment or clinic or service$)).ti,ab

  26. 34.

    ((retain$ or retent$) adj4 care).ti,ab

  27. 35.

    (seek$ adj4 (care or treatment$)).ti,ab

  28. 36.

    (utiliz$ adj4 (treatment or care or service$)).ti,ab

  29. 37.

    ((medical or primary) adj4 (care or treatment or service$)).ti,ab

  30. 38.

    (gap$ adj2 care).ti,ab

  31. 39.

    (visit adj2 (constan$ or consist$)).ti,ab

  32. 40.

    (appointment$ adj2 adher$).ti,ab

  33. 41.

    ((follow-up or follow up) adj2 discontin$).ti,ab

  34. 42.

    ((miss$ or schedul$) adj2 (visit$ or appointment$)).ti,ab

  35. 43.

    (contin$ adj2 care).ti,ab

  36. 44.

    or/9–43

  37. 45.

    8 and 44

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Search—MEDLINE (OVID)

Key:

Term/ = MeSH term.

ti = title field search.

ab = abstract field search.

$ = truncation word search.

adj = adjacency word search.

HIV or AIDS or STD MeSH and Keywords

  1. 1.

    HIV infections/

  2. 2.

    AIDS/

  3. 3.

    Sexually transmitted diseases/

  4. 4.

    HIV seropositivity/

  5. 5.

    HIV seronegativity/

  6. 6.

    AIDS serodiagnosis/

  7. 7.

    Hepatitis C/

  8. 8.

    HIV.ti,ab

  9. 9.

    (AIDS not hearing).ti,ab

  10. 10.

    Hepatitis C.ti,ab

  11. 11.

    HCV.ti,ab

  12. 12.

    Sexually transmitted disease$.ti,ab

  13. 13.

    Sexually transmitted infection$.ti,ab

  14. 14.

    (STD or STDs or STI or STIs).ti,ab

  15. 15.

    or/1–14

Pre Exposure Prophylaxis MeSH and Keywords

  1. 16.

    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/

  2. 17.

    Chemoprevention/

  3. 18.

    Pre exposure prophylaxis.ti,ab

  4. 19.

    Preexposure prophylaxis.ti,ab

  5. 20.

    PrEP.ti,ab

  6. 21.

    (Chemoprophylaxis or Chemo prophylaxis or chemoprevention).ti,ab

  7. 22.

    or/16–21

  8. 23.

    15 and 22

Medication Adherence (MA) Search—MEDLINE (OVID)

Key:

Term/ = MeSH/index term.

$ = truncation word search.

ab = abstract field search.

ti = title field search.

adj = adjacency word search.

HIV/AIDS MeSH and Keywords

  1. 1.

    HIV infections/

  2. 2.

    AIDS/

  3. 3.

    HIV seropositivity/

  4. 4.

    (living adj4 (hiv or aids)).ti,ab

  5. 5.

    HIV positiv$.ti,ab

  6. 6.

    HIV infected.ti,ab

  7. 7.

    or/1–6

Intervention MeSH and Keywords

  1. 8.

    Intervention studies/

  2. 9.

    Case management/

  3. 10.

    Directly observed therapy/

  4. 11.

    intervention$.ti,ab

  5. 12.

    (therapy or therapies).ti,ab

  6. 13.

    (treatment or treatments).ti,ab

  7. 14.

    medication event monitor$.ti,ab

  8. 15.

    mems.ti,ab

  9. 16.

    modified directly observed.ti,ab

  10. 17.

    mdot.ti,ab

  11. 18.

    directly administered.ti,ab

  12. 19.

    daart.ti,ab

  13. 20.

    directly observed therapy.ti,ab

  14. 21.

    dot.ti,ab

  15. 22.

    or/8–21

HAART MeSH and Keywords

  1. 23.

    Anti-HIV agents/

  2. 24.

    Anti-retroviral agents/

  3. 25.

    Antiviral agents/

  4. 26.

    Antiretroviral therapy, highly active/

  5. 27.

    haart.ti,ab

  6. 28.

    arv.ti,ab

  7. 29.

    art.ti,ab

  8. 30.

    antiretroviral$.ti,ab

  9. 31.

    anti retroviral$.ti,ab

  10. 32.

    antiviral$.ti,ab

  11. 33.

    anti viral$.ti,ab

  12. 34.

    (medication or medications).ti,ab

  13. 35.

    or/23–34

  14. 36.

    Patient compliance/

  15. 37.

    Medication adherence/

  16. 38.

    adher$.ti,ab

  17. 39.

    nonadher$.ti,ab

  18. 40.

    non adher$.ti,ab

  19. 41.

    complian$.ti,ab

  20. 42.

    non complian$.ti,ab

  21. 43.

    noncomplian$.ti,ab

  22. 44.

    viral load.ti,ab

  23. 45.

    (cd4 adj2 (count or counts)).ti,ab

  24. 46.

    or/36–45

  25. 47.

    7 and 22 and 35 and 46

Adherence MeSH and Keywords

Overview of reviews (ORP) search strategy—MEDLINE (OVID)

Key:

Term/ = MeSH/index term.

* = focus MeSH term.

adj = adjacency word search.

ti = titlefield search.

ab = abstract field search.

pt = publication type.

$ = truncation word search.

HIV/AIDS /STD MeSH and Keywords

  1. 1.

    *HIV infections/

  2. 2.

    *AIDS/

  3. 3.

    *Sexually transmitted diseases/

  4. 4.

    *HIV Seropositivity/

  5. 5.

    *AIDS Serodiagnosis/

  6. 6.

    HIV infect$.ti,ab

  7. 7.

    HIV positiv$.ti,ab

  8. 8.

    HIV care.ti,ab

  9. 9.

    (HIV adj4 incidence).ti,ab

  10. 10.

    (HIV adj4 prevent$).ti,ab

  11. 11.

    (HIV adj4 risk$).ti,ab

  12. 12.

    (HIV adj4 prevalen$).ti,ab

  13. 13.

    (HIV adj4 new$ infect$).ti,ab

  14. 14.

    (HIV adj4 new$ diagnos$).ti,ab

  15. 15.

    (HIV adj4 transm$).ti,ab

  16. 16.

    Sexually transmitted disease$.ti,ab

  17. 17.

    Sexually transmitted infection$.ti,ab

  18. 18.

    (STD or STDs or STI or STIs).ti,ab

  19. 19.

    (living adj4 HIV).ti,ab

  20. 20.

    (living adj4 (AIDS not hearing)).ti,ab

  21. 21.

    or/1–20

Systematic Review MeSH and Keywords

  1. 22.

    Review/OR review.pt

  2. 23.

    Meta analysis/OR meta-analysis.pt

  3. 24.

    22 or 23

  4. 25.

    (MEDLINE or MEDLARS or EMBASE or PubMed or Cochrane).ab

  5. 26.

    (PsychINFO or PsycINFO).ab

  6. 27.

    (Sociofile or Sociological Abstracts).ab

  7. 28.

    CINAHL.ab

  8. 29.

    ((hand adj2 search$) or (manual$ adj2 search$)).ab

  9. 30.

    ((electronic or bibliographic or computer$ or online or automat$) adj3 database$).ab

  10. 31.

    or/25–30

  11. 32.

    24 and 31

  12. 33.

    (review$ adj4 (study or studies)).ti,ab

  13. 34.

    (review$ adj4 evidence).ti,ab

  14. 35.

    (review$ adj4 updat$).ti,ab

  15. 36.

    (review$ adj4 (analy$ or anali$)).ti,ab

  16. 37.

    (research adj4 review$).ti,ab

  17. 38.

    (meta-anal$ or meta anal$ or metaanal$).ti,ab

  18. 39.

    (systematic$ adj4 review$).ti,ab

  19. 40.

    (systematic$ adj4 overview$).ti,ab

  20. 41.

    (systematic$ adj4 synthes$).ti,ab

  21. 42.

    Literature review.ti,ab

  22. 43.

    (literature$ adj4 overview$).ti,ab

  23. 44.

    (literature$ adj4 synthes$).ti,ab

  24. 45.

    (quantitativ$ adj4 review$).ti,ab

  25. 46.

    (quantitativ$ adj4 overview$).ti,ab

  26. 47.

    (quantitativ$ adj4 synthes$).ti,ab

  27. 48.

    (qualitative$ adj4 review$).ti,ab

  28. 49.

    (qualitative$ adj4 overview$).ti,ab

  29. 50.

    (qualitative$ adj4 synthes$).ti,ab

  30. 51.

    (methodolog$ adj4 review$).ti,ab

  31. 52.

    (methodolog$ adj4 overview$).ti,ab

  32. 53.

    (methodolog$ adj4 synthes$).ti,ab

  33. 54.

    (review$ adj4 article$).ti,ab

  34. 55.

    (research adj4 overview$).ti,ab

  35. 56.

    (research adj4 synthes$).ti,ab

  36. 57.

    or/33–56

  37. 58.

    32 or 57

  38. 59.

    21 and 58

HIV Stigma Intervention Searches in Online Databases

MEDLINE (OVID) HIV stigma interventions

Key:

Term/ = MeSH term.

$ = truncation word search.

ti = title field search.

ab = abstract field search.

HIV MeSH and Keywords

  1. 1.

    HIV infections/

  2. 2.

    HIV.ti,ab

  3. 3.

    or/1–2

Intervention/Program MeSH and Keywords

  1. 4.

    Randomized controlled trials/

  2. 5.

    Clinical trial/

  3. 6.

    Follow-up studies/

  4. 7.

    Mass media/

  5. 8.

    Social marketing/

  6. 9.

    Social media/

  7. 10.

    (program or programs).ti,ab

  8. 11.

    intervention$.ti,ab

  9. 12.

    trial$.ti,ab

  10. 13.

    control group$.ti,ab

  11. 14.

    RCT or RCTs.ti,ab

  12. 15.

    ((market$ or health$ or media) adj2 campaign$).ti,ab

  13. 16.

    (social adj2 (issue$ or factor$ or attitud$).ti,ab

  14. 17.

    (social adj2 market$).ti,ab

  15. 18.

    mass media.ti,ab

  16. 19.

    social media.ti,ab

  17. 20.

    structural*.ti,ab

  18. 21.

    (policy or policies).ti,ab

  19. 22.

    or/4–21

Stigma/SDH MeSH and Keywords

  1. 23.

    Social stigma/

  2. 24.

    Stereotyping/

  3. 25.

    Social determinants of health/

  4. 26.

    Discrimination (Psychology)/

  5. 27.

    Homophobia/

  6. 28.

    Racism/

  7. 29.

    Prejudice/

  8. 30.

    Social perception/

  9. 31.

    Stigma$.ti,ab

  10. 32.

    discriminat$.ti,ab

  11. 33.

    social determinant$.ti,ab

  12. 34.

    homophob$.ti,ab

  13. 35.

    stereotyp$.ti,ab

  14. 36.

    racis$.ti,ab

  15. 37.

    racial$.ti,ab

  16. 38.

    prejudic$.ti,ab

  17. 39.

    or/23–38

  18. 40.

    3 and 22 and 39

Limits: 2000–2019 and publication types (clinical trial or controlled clinical trial or corrected and republished article or evaluation studies or journal article or meta-analysis or multicenter study or published erratum or randomized controlled trial or retraction of publication or review or systematic reviews or validation studies).

EMBASE (OVID) HIV Stigma Interventions

Key:

Term/ = MeSH term.

$ = truncation word search.

ti = title field search.

ab = abstract field search.

HIV/AIDS Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 1.

    Human immunodeficiency virus/

  2. 2.

    HIV.ti,ab

  3. 3.

    or/1–2

Intervention Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 4.

    Randomized controlled trials/

  2. 5.

    Controlled clinical trial/

  3. 6.

    Follow up/

  4. 7.

    Intervention study/

  5. 8.

    Mass medium/

  6. 9.

    Social marketing/

  7. 10.

    Social media/

  8. 11.

    (program or programs).ti,ab

  9. 12.

    Intervention$.ti,ab

  10. 13.

    trial$.ti,ab

  11. 14.

    control group$.ti,ab

  12. 15.

    RCT or RCTs.ti,ab.

  13. 16.

    ((market$ or health$ or media) adj2 campaign$).ti,ab

  14. 17.

    (social adj2 (issue$ or factor$ or attitud$)).ti,ab

  15. 18.

    (social adj2 market$).ti,ab

  16. 19.

    mass media.ti,ab

  17. 20.

    social media.ti,ab

  18. 21.

    structural*.ti,ab

  19. 22.

    (policy or policies).ti,ab

  20. 23.

    or/4–22

Stigma and MSM Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 24.

    Stigma/

  2. 25.

    Social stigma/

  3. 26.

    Stereotyping/

  4. 27.

    Social determinants of health/

  5. 28.

    Social discrimination/

  6. 29.

    Homophobia/

  7. 30.

    Racism/

  8. 31.

    Prejudice/

  9. 32.

    Social perception/

  10. 33.

    Stigma$.ti,ab

  11. 34.

    discriminat$.ti,ab

  12. 35.

    Social determinant$.ti,ab

  13. 36.

    Homophob$.ti,ab

  14. 37.

    Stereotyp$.ti,ab

  15. 38.

    Racis$.ti,ab

  16. 39.

    Racial$.ti,ab

  17. 40.

    Prejudic$.ti,ab

  18. 41.

    or/24–40

  19. 42.

    3 and 23 and 41

Limits: years = 2000–2019 and publication types (article or books or chapter or erratum or reports or review).

CINAHL (EBSCOhost) HIV Stigma Interventions

Key:

MH = major heading.

* = truncation word search.

TI = title field search.

AB = abstract field search.

HIV Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 1.

    (MH "HIV infections")

  2. 2.

    TI HIV OR AB HIV

  3. 3.

    S1 OR S2

Intervention Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 4.

    (MH "randomized controlled trials")

  2. 5.

    (MH "clinical trials")

  3. 6.

    (MH "intervention trials")

  4. 7.

    (MH "multicenter trials")

  5. 8.

    (MH "communications media")

  6. 9.

    (MH “social media”)

  7. 10.

    (MH “social marketing”)

  8. 11.

    TI program OR AB program

  9. 12.

    TI programs OR AB programs

  10. 13.

    TI intervention* OR AB intervention*

  11. 14.

    TI trial* OR AB trial*

  12. 15.

    TI control group* OR AB control group*

  13. 16.

    TI rct* OR AB rct*

  14. 17.

    TI market* N2 campaign* OR AB market* N2 campaign*

  15. 18.

    TI health* N2 campaign* OR AB health* N2 campaign*

  16. 19.

    TI media N2 campaign* OR AB media* N2 campaign*

  17. 20.

    TI social N2 issue* OR AB social N2 issue*

  18. 21.

    TI social N2 factor* OR AB social N2 factor*

  19. 22.

    TI social N2 attitud* OR AB social N2 attitud*

  20. 23.

    TI social N2 market* OR AB social N2 market*

  21. 24.

    TI mass media OR AB mass media

  22. 25.

    TI social media OR AB social media

  23. 26.

    TI structural* OR AB structural*

  24. 27.

    TI policy OR AB policy

  25. 28.

    TI policies OR AB policies

  26. 29.

    or/S4-S28

Transmission Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 30.

    (MH “stigma”)

  2. 31.

    (MH "stereotyping")

  3. 32.

    (MH "social determinants of health")

  4. 33.

    (MH "discrimination")

  5. 34.

    (MH "homophobia")

  6. 35.

    (MH "racism")

  7. 36.

    (MH “prejudice”)

  8. 37.

    TI stigma* OR AB stigma*

  9. 38.

    TI discriminat* OR AB discriminat*

  10. 39.

    TI social determinant* OR AB social determinant*

  11. 40.

    TI homophob* OR AB homophob*

  12. 41.

    TI stereotyp* OR AB stereotyp*

  13. 42.

    TI racis* OR AB racis*

  14. 43.

    TI racial* OR AB racial*

  15. 44.

    TI prejudic* OR AB prejudic*

  16. 45.

    or/S30-S44

  17. 46.

    S3 AND S29 AND S45

Limits: years = 2000–2019.

PsycINFO (OVID) HIV Stigma Interventions

Key:

Term/ = indexing term.

$ = truncation word search.

ti = title field search.

ab = abstract field search.

HIV/AIDS Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 1.

    HIV /

  2. 2.

    AIDS prevention/

  3. 3.

    HIV.ti,ab

  4. 4.

    or/1–3

Intervention Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 5.

    Clinical trials/

  2. 6.

    Followup studies/

  3. 7.

    Mass media/

  4. 8.

    Social marketing/

  5. 9.

    Social media/

  6. 10.

    (program or programs).ti,ab

  7. 11.

    intervention$.ti,ab

  8. 12.

    trial$.ti,ab

  9. 13.

    control group$.ti,ab

  10. 14.

    RCT or RCTs.ti,ab

  11. 15.

    ((market$ or health$ or media) adj2 campaign$).ti,ab

  12. 16.

    (social adj2 (issue$ or factor$ or attitud$)).ti,ab

  13. 17.

    (social adj2 market$).ti,ab

  14. 18.

    mass media.ti,ab

  15. 19.

    social media.ti,ab

  16. 20.

    structural*.ti,ab

  17. 21.

    (policy or policies).ti,ab

  18. 22.

    or/5–21

Stigma and MSM Indexing Terms and Keywords

  1. 23.

    Stigma/

  2. 24.

    Stereotyped attitudes/

  3. 25.

    Social influences/

  4. 26.

    Racism/

  5. 27.

    Prejudice/

  6. 28.

    Social discrimination/

  7. 29.

    Social PERCEPTION/

  8. 30.

    Homosexuality/

  9. 31.

    stigma$.ti,ab

  10. 32.

    discriminat$.ti,ab

  11. 33.

    social determinant$.ti,ab

  12. 34.

    homophob$.ti,ab

  13. 35.

    stereotyp$.ti,ab

  14. 36.

    racis$.ti,ab

  15. 37.

    racial$.ti,ab

  16. 38.

    prejudic$.ti,ab

  17. 39.

    or/23–38

  18. 40.

    4 and 22 and 39

Limits: Years: 2000–2019 and publication types (journal or peer-reviewed journal or non-peer-reviewed journal or peer-reviewed status unknown or book or authored book or edited book).

Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest)—HIV Stigma Interventions

Key:

SU—Subject heading.

* truncation word search.

ti—title field search.

ab—abstract field search.

NEAR/2—terms within 2 words.

NEAR/4—terms within 4 words.

#1 HIV

SU(venereal diseases) OR ti(hiv) OR ab(hiv).

#2 Intervention/Mass Media

SU(Trials OR Longitudinal Studies OR Random samples OR Intervention OR Mass Media).

OR TI,AB((program OR programs OR intervention* OR trial* OR control group* OR rct OR rcts OR control group*) OR (market* NEAR/2 campaign*) OR (health* NEAR/2 campaign*) OR (media NEAR/2 campaign*) OR (social NEAR/2 issue*) OR (social NEAR/2 factor*) OR (social NEAR/2 attitud*) OR (social NEAR/2 market*) OR (mass media OR social media OR structural* OR policy OR policies)).

#3 Stigma/Social Determinants

SU (Social Stigma OR Stereotypes OR Discrimination OR Homophobia OR Racism OR Prejudice or Social Perception) OR TI,AB(stigma* OR discriminat* OR social determinant* OR homophob* OR stereotyp* OR racis* or racial* OR prejudic*).

#1 AND #2 AND #3

Date limit—2000–2019.

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Gunn, J.K.L., Rooks-Peck, C., Wichser, M.E. et al. Effectiveness of HIV Stigma Interventions for Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) With and Without HIV in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. AIDS Behav 26, 51–89 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03358-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03358-x

Keywords

  • MSM
  • Stigma
  • Intervention
  • Systematic review
  • Meta-analysis