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Table 2 Crude and adjusted associations between past-year violence victimization and viral load failure among adolescents and young adults living with HIV in Ndola, Zambia (n = 272)

From: Past-Year Violence Victimization is Associated with Viral Load Failure Among HIV-Positive Adolescents and Young Adults

  Crude odds ratio 95% CI p value Adjusted odds ratioa 95% CI p value
Model 1: any violence victimization
 No violence (n = 72) 1    1   
 Any physical, psychological, or forced sex (n = 200) 1.04 (0.59, 1.82) 0.89 1.09 (0.61, 1.95) 0.77
Model 2: frequency of any victimizationb
 No violence (scores of 0) (n = 72) 1    1   
 Single act of violence (scores of 1) (n = 31) 0.72 (0.29, 1.80) 0.49 0.70 (0.28, 1.79) 0.46
 Moderate frequency (scores of 2–11) (n = 150) 0.99 (0.55, 1.78) 0.97 1.06 (0.58, 1.96) 0.84
 High frequency (scores of 12–42) (n = 19) 2.43 (0.87, 6.81) 0.09 3.58 (1.14, 11.27) 0.03
Model 3: polyvictimization
 No violence (n = 72) 1    1   
 1 type of violence (n = 93) 0.93 (0.49, 1.77) 0.82 0.98 (0.50, 1.90) 0.94
 2 or 3 types of violence (n = 107) 1.14 (0.62, 2.12) 0.67 1.21 (0.63, 2.29) 0.57
Model 4: type of victimization
 Severity-times-frequency of physical violenceb       
  No physical violence (scores of 0) (n = 144) 1    1   
  Single act of physical violence (scores of 1) (n = 34) 1.16 (0.54, 2.52) 0.70 1.08 (0.47, 2.47) 0.85
  Moderate severity-times-frequency (scores of 2–7) (n = 56) 1.04 (0.55, 1.99) 0.90 0.93 (0.45, 1.93) 0.84
  High severity-times-frequency (scores of 8–42) (n = 38) 1.52 (0.74, 3.14) 0.26 1.18 (0.49, 2.85) 0.71
 Frequency of psychological abuseb
  No psychological abuse (scores of 0) (n = 96) 1    1   
  Single act of psychological abuse (scores of 1) (n = 31) 0.83 (0.35, 1.96) 0.67 0.84 (0.34, 2.04) 0.70
  Moderate frequency (scores of 2–5) (n = 111) 0.80 (0.45, 1.42) 0.46 0.81 (0.42, 1.57) 0.54
  High frequency (scores of 6–18) (n = 34) 2.49 (1.12, 5.53) 0.03 3.32 (1.26, 8.70) 0.01
 Forced sex
  No forced sex (n = 258) 1    1   
  Any forced sex (n = 14) 1.31 (0.44, 3.88) 0.63 1.19 (0.35, 4.01) 0.78
Model 5: perpetrator of physical violence
 Any vs. none from a parent/caregiver (n = 42 vs. 230) 1.07 (0.54, 2.10) 0.85 0.95 (0.46, 1.96) 0.89
 Any vs. none from another family member (n = 39 vs.233) 2.27 (1.15, 4.51) 0.02 2.18 (1.05, 4.54) 0.04
 Any vs. none from a romantic partner (n = 16 vs. 256) 0.56 (0.17, 1.77) 0.32 0.77 (0.21, 2.78) 0.69
 Any vs. none from a friend/peer (n = 44 vs. 228) 2.40 (1.25, 4.62) 0.01 2.14 (1.05, 4.36) 0.04
Model 6: Perpetrator of psychological abuse
 Any vs. none from a parent/caregiver (n = 39 vs. 233) 0.55 (0.25, 1.18) 0.12 0.48 (0.21, 1.09) 0.08
 Any vs. none from another family member (n = 68 vs. 204) 2.09 (1.19, 3.67) 0.01 2.50 (1.37, 4.54) 0.003
 Any vs. none from a romantic partner (n = 24 vs. 248) 0.85 (0.35, 2.06) 0.72 1.14 (0.42, 3.10) 0.80
 Any vs. none from a friend/peer (n = 99 vs. 173) 1.19 (0.72, 1.99) 0.50 1.18 (0.68, 2.05) 0.55
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, and study clinic (a priori), and the following: mode of HIV acquisition (all models), time on ART treatment (all models), orphan hood (all models except Model 3). Models 4–6 adjusted for the other violence variables in addition to covariates. p values are Wald tests
  2. bFrequency of any victimization scores were generated by summing each act’s frequency (never-0, once-1, a few times-2, many times-3) across 14 acts of violence. Severity-times-frequency of physical violence scores were generated by multiplying the act’s severity level (moderate-1, severe-2) by its frequency (never-0, once-1, a few times-2, many times-3), and summing across 7 acts of physical violence. Frequency of psychological abuse scores were generated by summing each act’s frequency (never-0, once-1, a few times-2, many times-3) across 6 acts of psychological abuse. Categories for violence scores were determined based on locally-weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) plots for the association between the variable and viral load failure