Metabolic Syndrome Among People Living with HIV Receiving Medical Care in Southern United States: Prevalence and Risk Factors

  • Sabeena SearsEmail author
  • Justin R. Buendia
  • Sylvia Odem
  • Mina Qobadi
  • Pascale Wortley
  • Osaro Mgbere
  • Jontae Sanders
  • Emma C. Spencer
  • Arti Barnes
Original Paper


Using representative data among 1861 in care people living with HIV (PLWH) in four southern states (Texas, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia) from the 2013–2014 Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) survey, we estimated the prevalence and odds of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among various demographic and HIV related risk factors. Overall MetS prevalence was 34%, with our participants being mostly black (55%), male (72%), ≥ 50 years old (46%), and overweight or obese (60%) with undetectable viral loads (≤ 200 copies/ml, 69%), and were currently taking antiretroviral medication (98%). Compared to those who were ≥ 60 years, 18–39 year olds had a 79% (95% CI 0.13–0.33) lower odds of having MetS. Women were 2.24 times more likely to have MetS than men (95% CI 1.69–2.97). Age and sex were significant predictors of MetS. Since MetS is a combination of chronic disease risk factors, regular screening for MetS risk factors among aging PLWH is crucial.


HIV Metabolic syndrome Medical Monitoring Project Southern United States 



Metabolic syndrome


Cardiovascular disease


Human immunodeficiency virus


People living with HIV


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


Adjusted odds ratio


Confidence intervals


Medical Monitoring Project


International Diabetes Federation


High density lipoprotein


Blood pressure


Body mass index


Antiretroviral therapy


Type II diabetes mellitus


Nutrition for healthy living


National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute


American Heart Association


Highly active antiretroviral therapy


Adult treatment panel


Usando datos representativos entre 1861 personas viviendo con VIH y recibiendo cuidado para VIH en cuatro estados del sur (Texas, Mississippi, Florida y Georgia) de la encuesta del Proyecto de Monitoreo Médico (MMP, siglas en inglés) 2013-2014, estimamos la prevalencia y las probabilidades del síndrome metabólico (MetS) entre varios factores de riesgo demográficos y relacionados con el VIH. La prevalencia general de MetS fue del 34%, y nuestros participantes fueron en su mayoría negros (55%), hombres (72%), ≥ 50 años (46%), con sobrepeso u obesidad (60%), con carga viral indetectable (≤ 200 copias/ml, 69%), y actualmente tomando medicamentos antirretrovirales (98%). En comparación con los que tenían ≥ 60 años, los de 18 a 39 años tuvieron un 79% (IC del 95%: 0.13-0.33) más baja probabilidad de tener MetS. Las mujeres tuvieron 2.24 veces más probabilidad de tener MetS que los hombres (IC del 95%:1.69-2.97). La edad y el sexo fueron predictores significativos de MetS. Dado que el MetS es una combinación de factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas, la evaluación regular de los factores de riesgo de MetS a lo largo del proceso de envejecimiento de personas que viven con VIH es crucial.



The authors would like to thank the HIV care facilities and sampled persons who participated in the MMP from the four Southern US states (Texas, Florida, Mississippi, and Georgia). We would also like to acknowledge the MMP staff from the participating project areas for the data collection; and members of the Community Advisory Board, Provider Advisory Board and management of the States’ Department of Health Services, local Health Departments and members of the Clinical Outcomes Team in CDC’s Behavioral and Clinical Surveillance Branch of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention for their respective support and contributions.


The findings and conclusions of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or any of the associated State Departments of Health Services or local Health Departments.


The Medical Monitoring Project for the data collection cycles used in the current study was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) under the Cooperative Agreement Number PS09-937.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Department of State Health ServicesAustinUSA
  2. 2.Mississippi State Department of HealthJacksonUSA
  3. 3.Georgia Department of Public HealthAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Houston Health DepartmentHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Florida Department of HealthTallahasseeUSA
  6. 6.Cornell Scott-Hill Health CenterNew HavenUSA
  7. 7.Yale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  8. 8.TB/STD/HIV Surveillance BranchTexas Department of State Health ServicesAustinUSA

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