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Factors Associated with the Separate and Concurrent Experiences of Food and Housing Insecurity Among Women Living with HIV in Canada

Abstract

People living with HIV are disproportionately affected by food and housing insecurity. We assessed factors associated with experiencing food and/or housing insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Canada. In our sample of WLHIV (N = 1403) 65% reported an income less than $20,000 per year. Most (78.69%) participants reported food and/or housing insecurity: 27.16% reported experiencing food insecurity alone, 14.26% reported housing insecurity alone, and 37.28% reported experiencing food and housing insecurity concurrently. In adjusted multivariable logistic regression analyses, experiencing concurrent food and housing insecurity was associated with: lower income, Black ethnicity versus White, province of residence, current injection drug use, lower resilience, HIV-related stigma, and racial discrimination. Findings underscore the urgent need for health professionals to assess for food and housing insecurity, to address the root causes of poverty, and for federal policy to allocate resources to ameliorate economic insecurity for WLHIV in Canada.

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Acknowledgements

The CHIWOS Research Team would like to thank women living with HIV for their contributions to this study. We also thank the National Team of Co-investigators, Collaborators, and Peer Research Associates and acknowledge the National Steering Committee, our three Provincial Community Advisory Boards, the National CHIWOS Aboriginal Advisory Board, the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS for data support and analysis, and all our partnering organizations for supporting the study. Listed here are all research team members and affiliated institutions; all those not listed by name on the title page are to be hyperlinked as authors: The CHIWOS Research Team: British Columbia: Aranka Anema (University of British Columbia), Denise Becker (Positive Living Society of British Columbia), Lori Brotto (University of British Columbia), Allison Carter (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Simon Fraser University), Claudette Cardinal (Simon Fraser University), Guillaume Colley (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS), Erin Ding (British Columbia Centre for Excellence), Janice Duddy (Pacific AIDS Network), Nada Gataric (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS), Robert S. Hogg (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Simon Fraser University), Terry Howard (Positive Living Society of British Columbia), Shahab Jabbari (British Columbia Centre for Excellence), Evin Jones (Pacific AIDS Network), Mary Kestler (Oak Tree Clinic, BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre), Andrea Langlois (Pacific AIDS Network), Viviane Lima (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS), Elisa Lloyd-Smith (Providence Health Care), Melissa Medjuck (Positive Women’s Network), Cari Miller (Simon Fraser University), Deborah Money (Women’s Health Research Institute), Valerie Nicholson (Simon Fraser University), Gina Ogilvie (British Columbia Centre for Disease Control), Sophie Patterson (Simon Fraser University), Neora Pick (Oak Tree Clinic, BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre), Eric Roth (University of Victoria), Kate Salters (Simon Fraser University), Margarite Sanchez (ViVA, Positive Living Society of British Columbia), Jacquie Sas (CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network), Paul Sereda (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS), Marcie Summers (Positive Women’s Network), Christina Tom (Simon Fraser University, BC), Lu Wang (British Columbia Centre for Excellence), Kath Webster (Simon Fraser University), Wendy Zhang (British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS). Ontario: Rahma Abdul-Noor (Women’s College Research Institute), Jonathan Angel (Ottawa Hospital Research Institute), Fatimatou Barry (Women’s College Research Institute), Greta Bauer (University of Western Ontario), Kerrigan Beaver (Women’s College Research Institute), Anita Benoit (Women’s College Research Institute), Breklyn Bertozzi (Women’s College Research Institute), Sheila Borton (Women’s College Research Institute), Tammy Bourque (Women’s College Research Institute), Jason Brophy (Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario), Ann Burchell (Ontario HIV Treatment Network), Allison Carlson (Women’s College Research Institute), Lynne Cioppa (Women’s College Research Institute), Jeffrey Cohen (Windsor Regional Hospital), Tracey Conway (Women’s College Research Institute), Curtis Cooper (Ottawa Hospital Research Institute), Jasmine Cotnam (Women’s College Research Institute), Janette Cousineau (Women’s College Research Institute), Annette Fraleigh (Women’s College Research Institute), Brenda Gagnier (Women’s College Research Institute), Claudine Gasingirwa (Women’s College Research Institute), Saara Greene (McMaster University), Trevor Hart (Ryerson University), Shazia Islam (Women’s College Research Institute), Charu Kaushic (McMaster University), Logan Kennedy (Women’s College Research Institute), Desiree Kerr (Women’s College Research Institute), Maxime Kiboyogo (McGill University Health Centre), Gladys Kwaramba (Women’s College Research Institute), Lynne Leonard (University of Ottawa), Johanna Lewis (Women’s College Research Institute), Carmen Logie (University of Toronto), Shari Margolese (Women’s College Research Institute), Marvelous Muchenje (Women’s Health in Women’s Hands), Mary (Muthoni) Ndung’u (Women’s College Research Institute), Kelly O’Brien (University of Toronto), Charlene Ouellette (Women’s College Research Institute), Jeff Powis (Toronto East General Hospital), Corinna Quan (Windsor Regional Hospital), Janet Raboud (Ontario HIV Treatment Network), Anita Rachlis (Sunnybrook Health Science Centre), Edward Ralph (St. Joseph’s Health Care), Sean Rourke (Ontario HIV Treatment Network), Sergio Rueda [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)], Roger Sandre (Haven Clinic), Fiona Smaill (McMaster University), Stephanie Smith (Women’s College Research Institute), Tsitsi Tigere (Women’s College Research Institute), Wangari Tharao (Women’s Health in Women’s Hands), Sharon Walmsley (Toronto General Research Institute), Wendy Wobeser (Kingston University), Jessica Yee (Native Youth Sexual Health Network), Mark Yudin (St-Michael’s Hospital). Quebec: Dada Mamvula Bakombo (McGill University Health Centre), Jean-Guy Baril (Université de Montréal), Nora Butler Burke (University Concordia), Pierrette Clément (McGill University Health Center), Janice Dayle (McGill University Health Centre), Danièle Dubuc (McGill University Health Centre), Mylène Fernet (Université du Québec à Montréal), Danielle Groleau (McGill University), Aurélie Hot (COCQ-SIDA), Marina Klein (McGill University Health Centre), Carrie Martin (Native Women’s Shelter of Montreal), Lyne Massie (Université de Québec à Montréal), Brigitte Ménard (McGill University Health Centre), Nadia O’Brien (McGill University Health Centre and Université de Montréal), Joanne Otis (Université du Québec à Montréal), Doris Peltier (Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network), Alie Pierre (McGill University Health Centre), Karène Proulx-Boucher (McGill University Health Centre), Danielle Rouleau (Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal), Édénia Savoie (McGill University Health Centre), Cécile Tremblay (Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal), Benoit Trottier (Clinique l’Actuel), Sylvie Trottier (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec), Christos Tsoukas (McGill University Health Centre). Other Canadian provinces or international jurisdictions: Jacqueline Gahagan (Dalhousie University), Catherine Hankins (University of Amsterdam), Renee Masching (Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network), Susanna Ogunnaike-Cooke (Public Health Agency of Canada). All other CHIWOS Research Team Members who wish to remain anonymous.

Funding

This study was funded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP-111041), the CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network (CTN 262), the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN), and the Academic Health Science Centres (AHSC) Alternative Funding Plans (AFP) Innovation Fund. CHL is supported by an Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation Early Researcher Award.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

CHL conceptualized the manuscript, contributed to study design and analytic methods, and led writing the manuscript. NM contributed substantially to writing the manuscript. YW conducted data analysis. AK, MRL, ADP were principal investigators and designed the study, contributed substantially to data collection, and provided feedback and edits. KW, VN and TC contributed to study design, data collection, and provided feedback and edits. NO provided feedback and edits and contributed to study design. All authors approved the final manuscript version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Carmen H. Logie.

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Conflict of interest

All authors declares no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Ethical Standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. All participants provided informed consent before commencing the interview, consistent with the ethics protocol approved by Women’ s College Hospital, University of Toronto (Ontario), Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia/Providence Health (British Columbia), and McGill University Health Centre (Quebec).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Logie, C.H., Wang, Y., Marcus, N. et al. Factors Associated with the Separate and Concurrent Experiences of Food and Housing Insecurity Among Women Living with HIV in Canada. AIDS Behav 22, 3100–3110 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2119-0

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Keywords

  • Women with HIV
  • Food insecurity
  • Housing insecurity
  • Health disparities
  • Social disparities
  • Antiretroviral adherence
  • Discrimination