AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1614–1638 | Cite as

Measurements of Sexuality-Based Stigma among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (GBMSM) in Resource-Poor Settings: A Review

  • Ryan Freeland
  • Erin Rogers
  • Heidi van Rooyen
  • Lynae Darbes
  • Kate Saylor
  • Rob Stephenson
Substantive Review


Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in resource-poor settings are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. GBMSM living in these settings may face unique barriers to HIV prevention, including legal barriers and increased sexuality-based stigma. It is therefore imperative to tailor HIV prevention and care resources to recognize the lived realities of GBMSM in these settings. Central to this is the accurate measurement of sexuality-based stigma. However, there is wide inconsistency in how sexuality-based stigma is measured among GBMSM in resource-poor settings. This paper reviews recent studies of sexuality-based stigma among GBMSM in resource-poor settings, finding great variability in measurements. The results of the review call for greater attention to the development of contextually and culturally specific measures of sexuality-based stigma for GBMSM living in resource-poor settings.


MSM Stigma Measurement Resource poor settings 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study did not require any funding.

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Center for Sexuality and Health DisparitiesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Health Informatics Joint Degree Program, School of InformationUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of NursingUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Department of Human and Social DevelopmentHuman Sciences Research CouncilPretoriaSouth Africa
  6. 6.Taubman Health Sciences LibraryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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