AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 2886–2894 | Cite as

Condomless Anal Sex Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: Biomedical Context Matters

  • Alison J. Hughes
  • Yea-Hung Chen
  • Susan Scheer
Original Paper


Data from Medical Monitoring Project was used to determine if partner type is associated with condomless anal sex (CAS) and insertive condomless anal sex (ICAS) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Participants reported HIV status and PrEP use of up to five anal sex partners. Partner type was categorized as HIV-positive, HIV status unknown, HIV-negative on PrEP or HIV-negative not on PrEP. To account for correlation of multiple observations per participant, generalized estimating equations were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals of CAS and ICAS. Condom use during anal sex and insertive anal sex varied based on partner type. There was a higher prevalence of CAS and ICAS in partnerships with HIV-positive partners or HIV-negative partners on PrEP compared to HIV-negative partners not on PrEP.


Men who have sex with men Pre-exposure prophylaxis HIV serosorting Condom use Anal sex 



Medical Monitoring Project, CDC, Grant Number # NU62PS004970-02-00.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

In accordance with the ethical standards of US Federal Code Title 45 Part 46 and the non-research determination made by four San Francisco institutional review boards in 2012, the Medical Monitoring Project was conducted as a supplemental HIV surveillance activity with a non-research determination during the 2014 and 2015 data collection cycles nationally and in San Francisco.

Informed Consent

All participants were given a patient information sheet, similar to an informed consent, prior to the interview and granted permission for the medical record abstraction.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA

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