AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 3000–3012 | Cite as

Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

  • William L. JeffriesIV
  • Sherese Garrett
  • Miriam Phields
  • Babatunde Olubajo
  • Emily Lemon
  • Raydel Valdés-Salgado
  • Charles B. CollinsJr.
Original Paper


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides trainings to support implementation of five evidence-based HIV prevention interventions (EBIs) for men who have sex with men (MSM): d-up: Defend Yourself!; Many Men, Many Voices; Mpowerment; Personalized Cognitive Counseling; and Popular Opinion Leader. We evaluated trainees’ implementation of these EBIs and, using multivariable logistic regression, examined factors associated with implementation. Approximately 43% of trainees had implemented the EBIs for which they received training. Implementation was associated with working in community-based organizations (vs. health departments or other settings); acquiring training for Mpowerment or Popular Opinion Leader (vs. Personalized Cognitive Counseling); having ≥3 funding sources (vs. one); and having (vs. not having) sufficient time and necessary EBI resources. Findings suggest that implementation may vary by trainee characteristics, especially those related to employment setting, EBI training, funding, and perceived implementation barriers. Efforts that address these factors may help to improve EBI implementation among trainees.


HIV Men who have sex with men Evidence-based intervention Implementation Training Evaluation 


Los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés) proveen entrenamiento para apoyar la implementación de cinco intervenciones basadas en la evidencia para la prevención del VIH entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: d-up: Defend Yourself!; Many Men, Many Voices; Mpowerment; Personalized Cognitive Counseling; y Popular Opinion Leader. Nosotros evaluamos la implementación de esas intervenciones por parte de quienes recibieron entrenamiento y examinamos los factores asociados con la implementación, para lo cual usamos regresión logística multivariada. Aproximadamente 43% de los participantes habían implementado la intervención para la cual fueron entrenados. La implementación se asoció con trabajar en organizaciones comunitarias (vs. departamentos de salud u otras organizaciones); haber recibido los entrenamientos Mpowerment o Popular Opinion Leader (vs. Personalized Cognitive Counseling); tener ≥3 fuentes de financiamiento (vs. una); y tener (vs. no tener) suficiente tiempo y los recursos necesarios para la intervención. Los resultados sugieren que la implementación de las intervenciones puede variar según las características de los participantes, específicamente su lugar de empleo, intervención para la que fueron entrenados, financiamiento y las barreras percibidas para la implementación. Los esfuerzos para abordar esos factores puedieran ayudar a que los participantes implementen las intervenciones basadas en la evidencia para las que fueron entrenados.

Palabras Clave

VIH hombres que tienen sexo con hombres intervenciones basadas en la evidencia implementación entrenamiento evaluación 



The authors are grateful to Grace J. Hall, Ph.D., MPH and Christopher H. Johnson, M.S. for helpful comments regarding project conceptualization and data analyses.


This evaluation was funded by CDC (Contract #200-2011-41314).


The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of CDC.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in this evaluation were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the evaluation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • William L. JeffriesIV
    • 1
  • Sherese Garrett
    • 2
  • Miriam Phields
    • 1
  • Babatunde Olubajo
    • 2
  • Emily Lemon
    • 2
  • Raydel Valdés-Salgado
    • 3
  • Charles B. CollinsJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of HIV/AIDS PreventionNational Center for HIV/AIDS Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)AtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Population Health Sciences DivisionSciMetrika, LLCAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Population Health Sciences DivisionSciMetrika, LLCSilver SpringUSA

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