AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 860–866 | Cite as

Addressing Early Retention in Antenatal Care Among HIV-Positive Women Through a Simple Intervention in Kinshasa, DRC: The Elombe “Champion” Standard Operating Procedure

  • Michelle M. GillEmail author
  • John Ditekemena
  • Aimé Loando
  • Nana Mbonze
  • Jo Bakualufu
  • Rhoderick Machekano
  • Cady Nyombe
  • Marleen Temmerman
  • Franck Fwamba
Brief Report


This cluster-randomized study aimed to assess the Elombe (“Champion”) standard operating procedure (SOP), implemented by providers and Mentor Mothers, on HIV-positive pregnant women’s retention between first and second antenatal visits. Sixteen facilities in Kinshasa were randomly assigned to intervention (SOP) or comparison (no SOP). Effect of the SOP was estimated using relative risk. Women in comparison facilities were more likely to miss second visits (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.05–5.98) than women in intervention facilities (30.0%, n = 27 vs. 12.0%, n = 9, p < 0.002). Findings demonstrate that a simple intervention can reduce critical early loss to care in PMTCT programs providing universal, lifelong treatment.


PMTCT DRC Antenatal care Retention Option B+ 



This study was funded with generous support from Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc. The authors thank all of the study participants for their participation and other clinic staff at study facilities for their support. The authors also recognize the support team at EGPAF in the US and the DRC, the data collectors, as well as Lynne Mofenson for her review of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. A waiver of informed consent was approved by the Institutional Review Boards which reviewed this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle M. Gill
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • John Ditekemena
    • 3
  • Aimé Loando
    • 3
  • Nana Mbonze
    • 3
  • Jo Bakualufu
    • 4
  • Rhoderick Machekano
    • 1
  • Cady Nyombe
    • 5
  • Marleen Temmerman
    • 2
    • 6
  • Franck Fwamba
    • 7
  1. 1.Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS FoundationWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation-DRCKinshasaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
  4. 4.Education Development CenterLubumbashiDemocratic Republic of the Congo
  5. 5.Kinshasa School of Public HealthUniversity of KinshasaKinshasaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
  6. 6.Faculty of Health SciencesAga Khan UniversityNairobiKenya
  7. 7.National AIDS Control ProgrammeKinshasaDemocratic Republic of the Congo

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