AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 2945–2957 | Cite as

Gender Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors Among Persons Involved in the U.S. Criminal Justice System and Living with HIV or at Risk for HIV: A “Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain” Harmonization Consortium

  • Kelsey B. Loeliger
  • Mary L. Biggs
  • Rebekah Young
  • David W. Seal
  • Curt G. Beckwith
  • Irene Kuo
  • Michael S. Gordon
  • Frederick L. Altice
  • Lawrence J. Ouellet
  • William E. Cunningham
  • Jeremy D. Young
  • Sandra A. Springer
Original Paper


The U.S. female criminal justice (CJ) population is rapidly growing, yet large-scale studies exploring gender-specific HIV risk behaviors in the CJ population are lacking. This analysis uses baseline data on adults with a CJ history from eight U.S. studies in an NIH-funded “Seek, Test, Treat, Retain” harmonization consortium. Data were collected using a standardized HIV risk behavior assessment tool and pooled across studies to describe participants’ characteristics and risk behaviors. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to test for gender-based behavior differences. Among 784 HIV-positive (21.4% female) and 5521 HIV-negative (8.5% female) participants, HIV-positive women had higher odds than HIV-positive men of engaging in condomless sexual intercourse (AOR 1.84 [1.16–2.95]) with potentially sero-discordant partners (AOR 2.40 [1.41–4.09]) and of sharing injection equipment (AOR 3.36 [1.31–8.63]). HIV risk reduction interventions targeting CJ-involved women with HIV are urgently needed as this population may represent an under-recognized potential source of HIV transmission.


HIV/AIDS Sexual risk behaviors Injection drug use risk behaviors Criminal justice system Women and gender differences 


La población femenina del Sistema de justicia penal (JP) de EEUU está creciendo rápidamente, sin embargo, hacen falta estudios de gran escala que exploren conductas de alto riesgo de VIH, género específicas, en la población de JP. Este análisis usa datos de referencia de adultos con historia de JP, extraídos de ocho estudios de EEUU parte de un consorcio de armonización de “Buscar, Evaluar, Tratar, Retener”, financiado por el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Usando una herramienta estandarizada de evaluación de conductas de riesgo en VIH, los datos recopilados de los estudios fueron combinados para describir las características de los participantes y las conductas de riesgo. Se usaron modelos de regresión logística multinivel de efectos mixtos para evaluar diferencias en las conductas según el género. De 784 participantes VIH positivo (21.4% mujeres) y 5521 VIH negativo (8.5% mujeres), las mujeres VIH positivas tuvieron mayor probabilidad que los hombres VIH positivos de tener relaciones sexuales sin condón (AOR 1.84 [1.16–2.95]), con parejas potencialmente serodiscordantes (AOR 2.40 [1.41–4.09]) y de compartir equipos de inyección (AOR 3.36 [1.31–8.63]). Se necesitan urgentemente intervenciones dirigidas a mujeres VIH positivas del sistema de JP para la reducción del riesgo de VIH, ya que esta población puede representar una fuente potencial y poco conocida de VIH.



Research presented in this paper is the result of secondary data analysis associated with the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) Data Collection and Harmonization Initiative, and was supported by U01DA037702 (University of Washington), F30DA041247 (Loeliger), and K02DA032322 (Springer) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) as well as the Yale University Medical Scientist Training Program under National Institute of General Medical Sciences Training Grant T32GM007205 (Loeliger) and P30AI042853 (Beckwith) from the Providence-Boston Center for AIDS Research. Primary data collection was conducted as part of the STTR consortium and was supported by Grants R01DA030768 (Altice, Springer), K24DA017072 (Altice), R01DA030771 (Gordon), R01DA030796 (Ouellet, Young), R01DA030770 (Seal), and R01DA030762 (Springer, Altice). The authors would like to thank the research teams associated with the STTR consortium whose collaboration made this project possible. The authors also thank the participants of the individual STTR studies for their valuable contributions. A full list of participating STTR investigators and institutions can be found at


This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Grant Numbers F30DA041247 [Loeliger], U01DA037702 [University of Washington], R01DA030770 [Seal], R01DA030771 [Gordon], R01DA030796 [Ouellet, Young], K24DA017072 [Altice], R01DA030768 [Altice, Springer], K02DA032322 [Springer], and R01DA030762 [Springer, Altice]), as well as the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Grant Number T32GM007205 [Yale University Medical Scientist Training Program]) and the Providence-Boston Center for AIDS Research (Grant Number P30AI042853 [Beckwith]).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10461_2017_1722_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 25 kb)
10461_2017_1722_MOESM2_ESM.docx (39 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 39 kb)
10461_2017_1722_MOESM3_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 27 kb)


  1. 1.
    Carson AE. Prisoners in 2014. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Prisoner Statistics Program, 1978–2014; 2015.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Institute for Criminal Policy Research (ICPR). World Prison Brief: United States of America. London: Birbeck University of London; 2016.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walmsley R. World prison population list London. Colchester: International Centre for Prison Studies (ICPS), University of Essex; 2013.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pagliaro LA, Pagliaro AM. Sentenced to death? HIV infection and AIDS in prisons—current and future concerns. Can J Criminol. 1992;34(2):201–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Altice FL, Mostashari F, Selwyn PA, Checko PJ, Singh R, Tanguay S, et al. Predictors of HIV infection among newly sentenced male prisoners. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18(5):444–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among incarcerated populations Atlanta, GA: CDC. 2015. Acccessed 22 July 2015.
  7. 7.
    Maruschak LM. HIV in prisons, 2001–2010. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice; 2012.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minton TD, Ginder S, Brumbaugh SM, Smiley-McDonald H, Rohloff H. Census of jails: population changes, 1999–2013. Bureau of Justice Statistics and RTI International; 2015. Report No.: NCJ 248627.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walmsley R. World female imprisonment list. London: Institute for Criminal Policy Research (ICPR), Birbeck University of London; 2015.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bureau of Justice Statistics. Probation and parole in the United States, 2014. 2015. Contract No.: NCJ 249057.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Staton-Tindall M, Leukefeld C, Palmer J, Oser C, Kaplan A, Krietemeyer J, et al. Relationships and HIV risk among incarcerated women. Prison J. 2007;87(1):143–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Staton-Tindall M, Frisman L, Lin HJ, Leukefeld C, Oser C, Havens JR, et al. Relationship influence and health risk behavior among re-entering women offenders. Women Health Issues. 2011;21(3):230–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Strathdee SA, West BS, Reed E, Moazen B, Azim T, Dolan K. Substance use and HIV among female sex workers and female prisoners: risk environments and implications for prevention, treatment, and policies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(Suppl 2):S110–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tortu S, Beardsley M, Deren S, Davis WR. The risk of HIV infection in a national sample of women with injection drug-using partners. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(8):1243–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McClelland GM, Teplin LA, Abram KM, Jacobs N. HIV and AIDS risk behaviors among female jail detainees: implications for public health policy. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(5):818–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abiona TC, Balogun JA, Adefuye AS, Sloan PE. Pre-incarceration HIV risk behaviours of male and female inmates. Int J Prison Health. 2009;5(2):59–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salisbury EJ, Van Voorhis P. Gendered pathways: a quantitative investigation of women probationers’ paths to incarceration. Crim Justice Behav. 2009;36(6):541–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simpson SS, Yahner JL, Dugan L. Understanding women’s pathways to jail: analysing the lives of incarcerated women. Aust N Z J Criminol. 2008;41(1):84–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fuentes CM. Nobody’s child: the role of trauma and interpersonal violence in women’s pathways to incarceration and resultant service needs. Med Anthropol Q. 2014;28(1):85–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen JL, Callahan DB, Kerndt PR. Syphilis control among incarcerated men who have sex with men: public health response to an outbreak. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(9):1473–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dissabandara LO, Dias SR, Dodd PR, Stadlin A. Patterns of substance use in male incarcerated drug users in Sri Lanka. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009;28(6):600–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Feaster DJ, Reznick OG, Zack B, McCartney K, Gregorich SE, Brincks AM. Health status, sexual and drug risk, and psychosocial factors relevant to postrelease planning for HIV + prisoners. J Correct Health Care. 2013;19(4):278–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harwell TS, Trino R, Rudy B, Yorkman S, Gollub EL. Sexual activity, substance use, and HIV/STD knowledge among detained male adolescents with multiple versus first admissions. Sex Transm Dis. 1999;26(5):265–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seal DW, Eldrige GD, Kacanek D, Binson D, Macgowan RJ, Project SSG. A longitudinal, qualitative analysis of the context of substance use and sexual behavior among 18- to 29-year-old men after their release from prison. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65(11):2394–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, McKaig R, Golin CE, Shain L, Adamian M, et al. Sexual behaviours of HIV-seropositive men and women following release from prison. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17(2):103–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grinstead O, Zack B, Faigeles B. Reducing postrelease risk behavior among HIV seropositive prison inmates: the health promotion program. AIDS Educ Prev. 2001;13(2):109–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alarid LF, Hahl JM. Seroconversion risk perception among jail populations: a call for gender-specific HIV prevention programming. J Correct Health Care. 2014;20(2):116–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adams LM, Kendall S, Smith A, Quigley E, Stuewig JB, Tangney JP. HIV risk behaviors of male and female jail inmates prior to incarceration and one year post-release. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(8):2685–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oser CB, Leukefeld CG, Tindall MS, Havens JR, Webster JM, Smiley-McDonald HM, et al. Male and female rural probationers: HIV risk behaviors and knowledge. AIDS care. 2006;18(4):339–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Farel CE, Parker SD, Muessig KE, Grodensky CA, Jones C, Golin CE, et al. Sexuality, sexual practices, and HIV risk among incarcerated African-American women in North Carolina. Women Health Issues. 2013;23(6):e357–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chandler RK, Kahana SY, Fletcher B, Jones D, Finger MS, Aklin WM, et al. Data collection and harmonization in HIV research: the seek, test, treat, and retain initiative at the national institute on drug abuse. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(12):2416–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Amico KR, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, Shuper PA, Redding CG, Konkle-Parker DJ, et al. Visual analog scale of ART adherence: association with 3-day self-report and adherence barriers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42(4):455–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fisher JD, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, Amico RK, Bryan A, Friedland GH. Clinician-delivered intervention during routine clinical care reduces unprotected sexual behavior among HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41(1):44–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Di Paola A, Lincoln T, Skiest DJ, Desabrais M, Altice FL, Springer SA. Design and methods of a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of extended-release naltrexone for HIV-infected, opioid dependent prisoners and jail detainees who are transitioning to the community. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014;39(2):256–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Loeliger KB, Biggs ML, Seal DW, Gordon MS, Beckwith CG, Kuo I, et al. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected and uninfected persons involved in the U.S. criminal justice system: the STTR harmonization project. National HIV Prevention Conference; December 6–9 2015.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Riley RD, Lambert PC, Abo-Zaid G. Meta-analysis of individual participant data: rationale, conduct, and reporting. BMJ. 2010;340:c221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Riley RD, Lambert PC, Staessen JA, Wang J, Gueyffier F, Thijs L, et al. Meta-analysis of continuous outcomes combining individual patient data and aggregate data. Stat Med. 2008;27(11):1870–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kontopantelis E, Reeves D. A short guide and a forest plot command (ipdforest) for one-stage meta-analysis. Stata J. 2013;13(3):574–87.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meyer JP, Springer SA, Altice FL. Substance abuse, violence, and HIV in women: a literature review of the syndemic. J Women Health. 2011;20(7):991–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Singer M (ed). Introduction to syndemics: a critical systems approach to public and community health. 1st ed, Hoboken: Wiley; 2009.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Loeliger KB, Marcus R, Wickersham JA, Pillai V, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL. The syndemic of HIV, HIV-related risk and multiple co-morbidities among women who use drugs in Malaysia: important targets for intervention. Addict Behav. 2015;53:31–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV risk behaviors Atlanta, GA2015. Accessed 4 Dec 2015.
  43. 43.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS: basic statistics Atlanta, GA2016. Accessed 16 March 2016.
  44. 44.
    El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Witte S, Wu E, Chang M. Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: contexts linking these two epidemics—challenges and implications for prevention and treatment. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46(2–3):295–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    El-Bassel N, Witte SS, Wada T, Gilbert L, Wallace J. Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2001;15(1):41–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shannon K, Kerr T, Allinott S, Chettiar J, Shoveller J, Tyndall MW. Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(4):911–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wechsberg WM, Luseno W, Ellerson RM. Reaching women substance abusers in diverse settings: stigma and access to treatment 30 years later. Subst Use Misuse. 2008;43(8–9):1277–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Knudsen HK, Leukefeld C, Havens JR, Duvall JL, Oser CB, Staton-Tindall M, et al. Partner relationships and HIV risk behaviors among women offenders. J Psychoact Drugs. 2008;40(4):471–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kuo C, Johnson J, Rosen RK, Wechsberg W, Gobin RL, Reddy MK, et al. Emotional dysregulation and risky sex among incarcerated women with a history of interpersonal violence. Women Health. 2014;54(8):796–815.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bergmann JN, Stockman JK. How does intimate partner violence affect condom and oral contraceptive Use in the United States?: a systematic review of the literature. Contraception. 2015;91(6):438–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    MacRae R, Aalto E. Gendered power dynamics and HIV risk in drug-using sexual relationships. AIDS Care. 2000;12(4):505–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sherman SG, Latkin CA, Gielen AC. Social factors related to syringe sharing among injecting partners: a focus on gender. Subst Use Misuse. 2001;36(14):2113–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tortu S, McMahon JM, Hamid R, Neaigus A. Women’s drug injection practices in East Harlem: an event analysis in a high-risk community. AIDS Behav. 2003;7(3):317–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wagner KD, Bloom JJ, Hathazi SD, Sanders B, Lankenau SE. Control over drug acquisition, preparation and injection: implications for HIV and HCV risk among young female injection drug users. ISRN Addict. 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/250751.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Battjes RJ, Pickens RW, Haverkos HW, Sloboda Z. HIV risk factors among injecting drug users in five US cities. AIDS. 1994;8(5):681–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Peles E, Adelson M. Gender differences and pregnant women in a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic. J Addict Dis. 2006;25(2):39–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Springer SA, Larney S, Alam-Mehrjerdi Z, Altice FL, Metzger D, Shoptaw S. Drug treatment as HIV prevention among women and girls who inject drugs from a global perspective: progress, gaps, and future directions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(Suppl 2):S155–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Valleroy LA, MacKellar DA, Karon JM, Rosen DH, McFarland W, Shehan DA, et al. HIV prevalence and associated risks in young men who have sex with men. JAMA. 2000;284(2):198–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    McKeganey N, Barnard M. AIDS, drugs, and sexual risk: lives in the balance. Philadelphia: Open University Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Anderson RM, May RM. Epidemiological parameters of HIV transmission. Nature. 1988;333(6173):514–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 90-90-90: an ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic. 2014.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Metsch L, Philbin MM, Parish C, Shiu K, Frimpong JA, le Giang M. HIV testing, care, and treatment among women who use drugs from a global perspective: progress and challenges. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(Suppl 2):S162–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Taxman FS, Altice FL. Sex-related disparities in criminal justice and HIV treatment outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected inmates. am j public Health. 2015;105(9):1901–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Epperson MW, Khan MR, Miller DP, Perron BE, El-Bassel N, Gilbert L. Assessing criminal justice involvement as an indicator of human immunodeficiency virus risk among women in methadone treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2010;38(4):375–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Swartz JA, Lurigio AJ, Weiner DA. Correlates of HIV-risk behaviors among prison inmates: implications for tailored aids prevention programming. Prison J. 2004;84(4):486–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Metzger DS, Zhang Y. Drug treatment as HIV prevention: expanding treatment options. Current HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7(4):220–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gowing L, Farrell M, Bornemann R, Sullivan L, Ali R. Substitution treatment of injecting opioid users for prevention of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gollub EL. A neglected population: drug-using women and women’s methods of HIV/STI prevention. AIDS Educ Prev. 2008;20(2):107–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Weir BW, O’Brien K, Bard RS, Casciato CJ, Maher JE, Dent CW, et al. Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: a randomized controlled trial of two motivational interviewing-based interventions. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(3):509–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jiwatram-Negron T, El-Bassel N. Systematic review of couple-based HIV intervention and prevention studies: advantages, gaps, and future directions. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(10):1864–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Springer SA, Spaulding AC, Meyer JP, Altice FL. Public health implications for adequate transitional care for HIV-infected prisoners: five essential components. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(5):469–79.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Althoff AL, Zelenev A, Meyer JP, Fu J, Brown SE, Vagenas P, et al. Correlates of retention in HIV care after release from jail: results from a multi-site study. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(Suppl 2):S156–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pinkham S, Malinowska-Sempruch K. Women, harm reduction and HIV. Reprod Health Matters. 2008;16(31):168–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dolan K, Wirtz AL, Moazen B, Ndeffo-Mbah M, Galvani A, Kinner SA, et al. Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees. Lancet. 2016;388(10049):1089–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Springer SA. Commentary on Larney (2010): a call to action-opioid substitution therapy as a conduit to routine care and primary prevention of HIV transmission among opioid-dependent prisoners. Addiction. 2010;105(2):224–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Springer SA, Azar MM, Altice FL. HIV, alcohol dependence, and the criminal justice system: a review and call for evidence-based treatment for released prisoners. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011;37(1):12–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Springer SA, Qiu J, Saber-Tehrani AS, Altice FL. Retention on buprenorphine is associated with high levels of maximal viral suppression among HIV-infected opioid dependent released prisoners. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(5):e38335.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Malinowska-Sempruch K. What interventions are needed for women and girls who use drugs? A global perspective. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(Suppl 1):S96–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gilbert L, Raj A, Hien D, Stockman J, Terlikbayeva A, Wyatt G. Targeting the SAVA (substance abuse, violence, and AIDS) syndemic among women and girls: a global review of epidemiology and integrated interventions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(Suppl 2):S118–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    El-Bassel N, Strathdee SA. Women who use or inject drugs: an action agenda for women-specific, multilevel, and combination HIV prevention and research. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(Suppl 2):S182–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelsey B. Loeliger
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mary L. Biggs
    • 3
  • Rebekah Young
    • 3
  • David W. Seal
    • 4
  • Curt G. Beckwith
    • 5
  • Irene Kuo
    • 6
  • Michael S. Gordon
    • 7
  • Frederick L. Altice
    • 1
    • 2
    • 8
  • Lawrence J. Ouellet
    • 9
  • William E. Cunningham
    • 10
    • 11
  • Jeremy D. Young
    • 12
  • Sandra A. Springer
    • 1
  1. 1.Yale University AIDS ProgramYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology of Microbial DiseasesYale School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral SciencesTulane University School of Public Health and Tropical MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  5. 5.Department of Medicine/Infectious DiseasesThe Miriam Hospital/Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  6. 6.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsGeorge Washington University Milken Institute School of Public HealthWashingtonUSA
  7. 7.Friends Research Institute Inc.BaltimoreUSA
  8. 8.Centre of Excellence on Research in AIDS (CERiA)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  9. 9.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsSchool of Public Health, University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  10. 10.Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  11. 11.Department of Health Policy and Management, Fielding School of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  12. 12.Division of Infectious Diseases, Immunology and International Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations