AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 12, pp 3549–3556 | Cite as

Dual Incarceration and Condom Use in Committed Relationships

  • Allison K. Groves
  • WeiHai Zhan
  • Ana Maria del Río-González
  • Alana Rosenberg
  • Kim M. Blankenship
Original Paper


Incarceration fractures relationship ties and has been associated with unprotected sex. Relationships where both individuals have a history of incarceration (dual incarceration) may face even greater disruption and involve more unprotected sex than relationships where only one individual has been incarcerated. We sought to determine whether dual incarceration is associated with condom use, and whether this association varies by relationship type. Data come from 499 sexual partnerships reported by 210 individuals with a history of incarceration. We used generalized estimating equations to examine whether dual incarceration was associated with condom use after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics. Interaction terms between dual incarceration and relationship commitment were also examined. Among currently committed relationships, dual incarceration was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 4.33; 95% CI 1.02, 18.45). Dual incarceration did not affect condom use in never committed relationships. Reducing incarcerations may positively impact committed relationships and subsequently decrease HIV-related risk.


Dual incarceration Inconsistent condom use Sexual partner Commitment 


El encarcelamiento fractura los lazos relacionales y ha sido asociado con relaciones sexuales sin protección. Es posible que las relaciones en las que ambos individuos tienen una historia de encarcelamiento (encarcelamiento dual) enfrenten aún mayor disrupción e involucren más sexo sin protección que las relaciones en las que sólo un individuo ha sido encarcelado. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si el encarcelamiento dual está asociado con el uso de condón, y si esta asociación varía según el tipo de relación. Los datos provienen de 499 relaciones sexuales reportadas por 210 individuos con historia de encarcelamiento. Usamos ecuaciones de estimación generalizadas para examinar si el encarcelamiento dual estaba asociado con el uso de condón luego de controlar por características individuales y de la relación. También analizamos los términos de interacción entre el encarcelamiento dual y el compromiso en la relación. En relaciones comprometidas en el presente, el encarcelamiento dual estaba asociado con uso inconsistente del condón (AOR: 4.33; IC 95%: 1.02, 18.45). En relaciones nunca comprometidas, el encarcelamiento dual no afectó el uso de condón. Reducir el encarcelamiento puede tener un impacto positivo en relaciones comprometidas y, consecuentemente, reducir el riesgo de VIH.

Palabras clave

Encarcelamiento dual uso inconsistente del condón pareja sexual compromiso 



First and foremost, we would like to acknowledge our participants for their willingness to be a part of this research study and to share intimate details about their lives.


This research study was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Health (R01DA025021; Kim Blankenship, Principal Investigator). This research has also been facilitated by the services and resources provided by the District of Columbia Center for AIDS Research, an NIH funded program (AI117970), which is supported by the following NIH Co-Funding and Participating Institutes and Centers: NIAID, NCI, NICHD, NHLBI, NIDA, NIMH, NIA, FIC, NIGMS, NIDDK, and OAR. Additional support was received from Yale University’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (National Institute of Mental Health Grant No. P30MH062294, Paul D. Cleary, Ph.D., Principal Investigator). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community Health and PreventionDrexel Dornsife School of Public HealthPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Connecticut Department of Children and FamiliesHartfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Sociology, Center on Health, Risk and SocietyAmerican UniversityWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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