AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 12, pp 3578–3589 | Cite as

Network Centrality and Geographical Concentration of Social and Service Venues that Serve Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

  • Kayo Fujimoto
  • Rolf Turner
  • Lisa M. Kuhns
  • Ju Yeong Kim
  • Jing Zhao
  • John A. Schneider
Original Paper


This study examines network centrality of inter-venue networks formed by collaboration, competition, and sponsorship relationships among venues that serve young men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 16–29 years in relation to their geographical concentrations in Chicago, Illinois, and Houston, Texas. Our data on the physical venues comprised 116 venues in Chicago and 102 venues in Houston. We examined the relationship between the network centrality of different relations and the geographical intensity among these venues, and considered neighborhood-level socioeconomic determinants of health. The results indicate that young MSM-serving social and service venues found in close physical proximity to one another tend to have large centrality indegree values based on competition in both cities, and based on collaboration only in Chicago. No evidence, however, was found that occupying a central position in the sponsorship networks was related to geographic concentration. Combined, these results suggest that HIV prevention interventions should consider the organizing force for competition. Such a strategy could result in better services. However there may still be potential for overlap and redundancy in services at the expense of under-served regions where proven interventions could have the greatest impact.


Social capital Young MSM HIV Social network analysis Spatial clustering Gay neighborhood 



This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health/NIMH 1R01MH100021, 1R01DA039934. The content is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors acknowledge Robert Garofalo, Dennis Li, and YMAP staff for their contributions to this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Research involved human participants and informed consent was obtained. All study procedures were approved by the Committees for the Protection of Human Subjects at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, the University of Chicago, and the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kayo Fujimoto
    • 1
  • Rolf Turner
    • 2
  • Lisa M. Kuhns
    • 3
  • Ju Yeong Kim
    • 1
  • Jing Zhao
    • 1
  • John A. Schneider
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Health Promotion & Behavioral Sciences, School of Public HealthUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of StatisticsUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsFeinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University & Division of Adolescent Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s HospitalChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medicine and Public Health Sciences and the Chicago Center for HIV EliminationUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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