AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1826–1834 | Cite as

HIV-Infected Young Men Demonstrate Appropriate Risk Perceptions and Beliefs about Safer Sexual Behaviors after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

  • Jessica A. Kahn
  • Jeannette Lee
  • Marvin Belzer
  • Joel M. Palefsky
  • For the AIDS Malignancy Consortium and Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to identify risk perceptions after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among HIV-infected young men who have sex with men. On average, participants appropriately perceived themselves to be at lower than neutral risk for HPV (mean subscale score 4.2/10), at higher than neutral risk for other sexually transmitted infections (7.0/10), and that safer sexual behaviors were still important (8.5/10). Higher perceived risk of HPV was associated with African-American race (p = .03); higher perceived risk of other sexually transmitted infections with White race (p = .01) and higher knowledge about HPV (p = .001); and higher perceived need for safer sexual behaviors with consistent condom use (p = .02). The study provides reassuring data that HIV-infected young men who have sex with men generally have appropriate risk perceptions and believe that safer sexual behaviors after vaccination are still important. These findings mirror the results of studies in HIV-infected young women and HIV-uninfected adolescents.


Human papillomavirus Vaccine HIV Adolescent Risk perceptions 


El objetivo de esta investigación fue el de identificar percepciones de riesgos después de recibir la vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH), en hombres jóvenes infectados con VIH que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres. En promedio, los participantes reconocieron debidamente que están en un riesgo más bajo que el neutral para contraer VPH (promedio de un puntaje de menor escala 4.2/10), en un riesgo más alto que el neutral para contraer otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (7.0/10), y que los comportamientos sexuales seguros aún son importantes (8.5/10). La percepción de tener un mayor riesgo de contraer VPH fue asociada con la raza afro-americana (p = .03). La percepción de tener un mayor riesgo de contraer otras infecciones trasmitidas sexualmente fue asociada con la raza blanca (p = .01), así como un mayor conocimiento sobre VPH (p = .001). Una percepción mayor sobre la necesidad de tener comportamientos sexuales seguros estuvo asociada con el uso consistente de condones (p = .02). La investigación provee datos alentadores indicando que los hombres jóvenes infectados con VIH, que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres, generalmente tienen percepciones de riesgos apropiados y creen que los comportamientos sexuales más seguros siguen siendo importantes después de la vacunación. Estos resultados son similares a los resultados de investigaciones hechas en mujeres jóvenes infectadas con VIH y adolescentes no infectados con VIH.



This study was supported by the AIDS Malignancies Consortium (AMC) from the National Cancer Institute (UM1CA121974). The following AMC sites participated in this study: Boston Medical Center (E. Stier), Washington University School of Medicine (L. Ratner, G. Bucher), UCSD Moores Cancer Center (W. Wachsman, E. Cachay, A. Sitapati), Laser Surgery Center (S. Goldstone, D. Worrall), UCSF Medical Center Mount Zion (L. Kaplan, M. Berry, N. Jay, J. Palefsky, M. Rubin), Thomas Street Clinic (E. Chiao), Wake Forest University Health Sciences (L. Barroso, L. Bachmann), and University of Puerto Rico (M. Tirado-Gomez, H. Guiot). This work was also supported by The Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from the National Institutes of Health [U01 HD 040533 and U01 HD 040474] through the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (B. Kapogiannis, L. Serchuck), with supplemental funding from the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (N. Borek) and Mental Health (P. Brouwers, S. Allison). The study was scientifically reviewed by the ATN’s Therapeutic Leadership Group. Network, scientific and logistical support was provided by the ATN Coordinating Center (C. Wilson, C. Partlow) at The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Network operations and analytic support was provided by the ATN Data and Operations Center at Westat, Inc. (J. Korelitz, B. Driver). The following ATN sites participated in this study: John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County (Martinez, Bojan), Montefiore Medical Center (Futterman, Campos), St. Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital (Flynn, Dillard), Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles (Belzer, Tucker), Baylor College of Medicine (Paul, Head), The Fenway Institute (Mayer, Dormitzer), and the University of Colorado, Denver (Reirden, Chambers). The investigators are grateful to the members of the local youth Community Advisory Boards for their insight and counsel and are indebted to the youth who participated in this study. The comments and views of the authors do not necessarily represent the views of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Vaccine and HPV Mean Geometric Titers were provided through the Investigator-Initiated Studies Program of Merck & Co., Inc. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Merck & Co., Inc.


This study was funded by the AIDS Malignancies Consortium (AMC) from the National Cancer Institute (UM1CA121974). This work was also supported by The Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from the National Institutes of Health (U01 HD 040533 and U01 HD 040474) through the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Vaccine and HPV Mean Geometric Titers were provided through the Investigator-Initiated Studies Program of Merck & Co., Inc.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

Dr. Kahn has received research funding from Merck & Co. for clinical trials of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected men and women; the trials were NIH-funded and Merck & Co. provided vaccine and immunogenicity testing. Dr. Belzer received research funding from ViiV Healthcare. Dr. Palefsky has received travel support and research support from Merck & Co. and serves on the scientific advisory boards for Agenovir Corporation, Antiva Biosciences, and The Vax. Dr. Lee reports has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica A. Kahn
    • 1
    • 5
  • Jeannette Lee
    • 2
  • Marvin Belzer
    • 3
  • Joel M. Palefsky
    • 4
  • For the AIDS Malignancy Consortium and Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Division of Adolescent Medicine, MLC 4000Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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