Gender Norms, Gender Role Conflict/Stress and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Men in Mpumalanga, South Africa

  • Ann Gottert
  • Clare Barrington
  • Heath Luz McNaughton-Reyes
  • Suzanne Maman
  • Catherine MacPhail
  • Sheri A. Lippman
  • Kathleen Kahn
  • Rhian Twine
  • Audrey Pettifor
Original Paper

Abstract

Men’s gender role conflict and stress (GRC/S), the psychological strain they experience around fulfilling expectations of themselves as men, has been largely unexplored in HIV prevention research. We examined associations between both men’s gender norms and GRC/S and three HIV risk behaviors using data from a population-based survey of 579 18–35 year-old men in rural northeast South Africa. Prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in the last 12 months were 38.0 and 13.4%, respectively; 19.9% abused alcohol. More inequitable gender norms and higher GRC/S were each significantly associated with an increased odds of concurrency (p = 0.01; p < 0.01, respectively), IPV perpetration (p = 0.03; p < 0.01), and alcohol abuse (p = 0.02; p < 0.001), controlling for demographic characteristics. Ancillary analyses demonstrated significant positive associations between: concurrency and the GRC/S sub-dimension subordination to women; IPV perpetration and restrictive emotionality; and alcohol abuse and success, power, competition. Programs to transform gender norms should be coupled with effective strategies to prevent and reduce men’s GRC/S.

Keywords

Gender role HIV Sexual behavior Violence Alcohol South Africa 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Gottert
    • 1
    • 2
  • Clare Barrington
    • 1
  • Heath Luz McNaughton-Reyes
    • 1
  • Suzanne Maman
    • 1
  • Catherine MacPhail
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sheri A. Lippman
    • 3
    • 5
  • Kathleen Kahn
    • 3
    • 6
    • 7
  • Rhian Twine
    • 3
    • 6
  • Audrey Pettifor
    • 3
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Population CouncilHIV and AIDS ProgramWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt)School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  4. 4.School of HealthUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  5. 5.Center for AIDS Prevention StudiesDepartment of Medicine, University of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  6. 6.Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute (WRHI)University of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  7. 7.Umeå Centre for Global Health ResearchDivision of Epidemiology and Global Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  8. 8.Department of EpidemiologyGillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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