AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 650–654

The Impact of Positive Income Shocks on Risky Sexual Behavior: Experimental Evidence from Tanzania

  • Zachary Wagner
  • Erick Gong
  • Damien de Walque
  • William H. Dow
Brief Report

DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1524-5

Cite this article as:
Wagner, Z., Gong, E., de Walque, D. et al. AIDS Behav (2017) 21: 650. doi:10.1007/s10461-016-1524-5


In this paper, we exploit a lottery in Tanzania, which randomly assigned eligible participants to receive $100 cash grants. The randomized nature of the lottery allows us to estimate the causal impact of positive income shocks on risky sexual behavior. We found that winning the lottery led men to have 0.28 (95 % CI 0.14, 0.55) more sexual partners and to a 0.21 (95 % CI 0.01–0.4) increase in the probability of unprotected sex with a non-primary partner relative to a control group of eligible non-winners. We found no significant effect of winning the lottery on the sexual behavior of women.


HIV/AIDS Lottery Risky sexual behavior Tanzania Income shocks 

Supplementary material

10461_2016_1524_MOESM1_ESM.docx (150 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 149 kb)

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Institute on Aging
  • T32-AG000246

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary Wagner
    • 1
  • Erick Gong
    • 2
  • Damien de Walque
    • 3
  • William H. Dow
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsMiddlebury CollegeMiddleburyUSA
  3. 3.Development Research Group, The World BankWashingtonUSA

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