AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 2156–2166 | Cite as

Hope Matters: Developing and Validating a Measure of Future Expectations Among Young Women in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa (HPTN 068)

  • Laurie Abler
  • Lauren HillEmail author
  • Suzanne Maman
  • Robert DeVellis
  • Rhian Twine
  • Kathleen Kahn
  • Catherine MacPhail
  • Audrey Pettifor
Original Paper


Hope is a future expectancy characterized by an individual’s perception that a desirable future outcome can be achieved. Though scales exist to measure hope, they may have limited relevance in low resource, high HIV prevalence settings. We developed and validated a hope scale among young women living in rural South Africa. We conducted formative interviews to identify the key elements of hope. Using items developed from these interviews, we administered the hope scale to 2533 young women enrolled in an HIV-prevention trial. Women endorsed scale items highly and the scale proved to be unidimensional in the sample. Hope scores were significantly correlated with hypothesized psycholosocial correlates with the exception of life stressors. Overall, our hope measure was found to have excellent reliability and to show encouraging preliminary indications of validity in this population. This study presents a promising measure to assess hope among young women in South Africa.


Hope Scale development South Africa Young women HIV 



This work was supported by Award Numbers UM1 AI068619 (HPTN Leadership and Operations Center), UM1AI068617 (HPTN Statistical and Data Management Center), and UM1AI068613 (HPTN Laboratory Center) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health. This work was also supported by NIMH R01 (R01MH087118) and the Carolina Population Center and its NIH Center grant (P2C HD050924). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurie Abler
    • 1
  • Lauren Hill
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suzanne Maman
    • 1
  • Robert DeVellis
    • 1
  • Rhian Twine
    • 2
  • Kathleen Kahn
    • 2
  • Catherine MacPhail
    • 3
  • Audrey Pettifor
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Health BehaviorUNC Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.School of HealthUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyUNC Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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