AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 20, Issue 9, pp 1961–1972 | Cite as

Work It Out Together: Preliminary Efficacy of a Parent and Adolescent DVD and Workbook Intervention on Adolescent Sexual and Substance Use Attitudes and Parenting Behaviors

  • Wendy HadleyEmail author
  • L. K. Brown
  • D. Barker
  • J. Warren
  • P. Weddington
  • T. Fortune
  • I. Juzang
Original Paper


The purpose of the current study was to test an interactive DVD and workbook specifically designed for African-American parents and adolescents (ages 13–18), based on an efficacious face-to-face intervention, to address key factors associated with risk. A total of 170 parent-adolescent dyads were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either the “Work It Out Together” DVD or a General Health Promotion DVD (HP). Parents and adolescents completed measures of HIV knowledge, self-efficacy, and parenting behaviors. Immediately after receiving the Work It Out Together intervention, parents and adolescents demonstrated higher HIV knowledge and greater HIV prevention self-efficacy. Three months after receiving the Work It Out Together intervention, parents and adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring and sexually active adolescents reported higher levels of condom use self-efficacy and a lower rate of recent sex. These outcomes provide preliminary evidence that the “Work It Out Together” DVD impacted individual attitudes and protective parenting behaviors.


Adolescent Parenting Sexual risk DVD Substance use 



Research supported by: The National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH63008, PI: Brown, L.; R44 MH082103; PI: Juzang; K23 MH102131, PI: Barker, D.) and the Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853, PI: Carpenter, C.) provided additional support for this report.


  1. 1.
    Health Science Services USDoH. HIV impact: a closing the gap newsletter. Washington, DC: Office of Minority Health; 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    CDC. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2007. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(SS-4).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Donenberg G, Wilson H, Emerson E, Bryant F. Holding the line with a watchful eye: the impact of perceived parental permissiveness and parental monitoring on risky sexual behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14:138–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fisher L, Feldman S. Familial antecedents of young adults health risk behavior: a longitudinal study. J Fam Psychol. 1998;12:66–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jemmott L, Jemmott J. Family structure, parental strictness, and sexual behavior among inner-city black male adolescents. J Adolesc Res. 1992;7:192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller B, Benson B, Gailbraith K. Family relationships and adolescent pregnancy risk: a research synthesis. Dev Rev. 2001;21:1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miller B, Fox G. Theories of adolescent heterosexual behavior. J Adolesc Res. 1987;2:269–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biglan A, Metzler C, Wirt R, Ary D, Noel J, Ochs L, et al. Social and behavioral factors associated with high-risk behavior among adolescents. J Behav Med. 1990;13:245–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wills T, Vaccaro D, McNamara G. The role of life event, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: a test of vulnerability and protective factors. Am J Community Psychol. 1992;20:349–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Conger R, Reuter M. Siblings, parents, and peers: a longitudinal study of social influences in adolescent risk for alcohol use and abuse. In: Brody G, editor. Sibling relationships: their causes and consequences. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation; 1996. p. 1–30.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Patton L. Adolescent substance abuse. Pediatr Clin N Am. 1995;42:283–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    DiIorio C, Kelley M, Hockenberry-Eaton M. Communication about sexual issues: mothers, fathers, and friends. J Adolesc Health. 1999;24:181–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Henggeler S, Melton G, Rodrigue J. Pediatric and adolescent AIDS: research findings from the social sciences. Newbury Park: Sage; 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McBride C, Paikoff R, Holmbeck G. Individual and familial influences on the onset of sexual intercourse among urban African American adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71:159–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Metzler CW, Noell J, Biglan A, Ary D, Smolkowski K. The social context for risky sexual behavior among adolescents. J Behav Med. 1994;17:419–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Voisin D. Family ecology and HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2002;72:294–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Diiorio C, Resnicow K, Dudley W, Thomas S, Wang D, Van Marter D, et al. Social cognitive factors associated with mother-adolescent communication about sex. J Health Commun Int Perspect. 2000;5(1):41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McKay M, Baptiste D, Coleman D, Madison S, Paikoff R, Scott R. Preventing hiv risk exposure in urban communities: the CHAMP family program. In working with families in the era of HIV/AIDS2000. p. 67–88.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dilorio C, Resnicow K, McCarty F, De A, Dudley W, Wang D, et al. Keepin’ it R.E.A.L.! Results of a mother-adolescent HIV prevention program. Nurs Res. 2006;55(1):43–51.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wu Y, Stanton B, Galbraith J, Kaljee L, Cottrell L, Li X, et al. Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: a longitudinal randomized trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics. 2003;111(1):e32–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stanton B, Cole M, Galbraith J, Li X, Pendleton S, Cottrel L, et al. Randomized trial of a parent intervention: parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(10):947–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jemmott L, Outlaw F, Jemmott III J, Brown E, Howard M, Hopkins K. Strengthening the bond: the Mother-Son Health Promotion Project. Pequegnat W, Szapocznik J, editors. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.; 2000.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krauss B, Godfrey C, Yee D, Goldsampt L, Tiffany J, Almeyda L. Saving our children from a silent epidemic: the PATH program for children and adolescents. In: Pequegnat W, Szapocznik J, editors. Working with families in the era of HIV/AIDS. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2000. p. 89–112.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dilorio C, Resnicow K, Lehr S, Denzmore P. REAL men: a group-randomized trial of an HIV prevention intervention for adolescent boys. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(6):1084–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guilamo-Ramos V, Jaccard J, Dittus P, Bouris A, Gonzalez B, Casillas E, et al. A Comparative study of interventions for delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse among latino and Black Youth. Perspect Sexual Reprod Health [Article]. 2011;43(4):247–54.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dancy B, Crittenden K, Talashek M. Mothers’ effectiveness as HIV risk reduction educators for adolescent daughters. J Health Care Poor Undeserved. 2006;17(1):218–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Flay B, Graumlich S, Segawa E, Burns J, Holliday M. Effects of two prevention programs on high-risk behaviors among African American youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158:377–84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murry VM, Berkel C, Chen Y, et al. Intervention induced changes on parenting practices, youth self-pride and sexual norms to reduce HIV-related behaviors among rural african american youths. J Youth Adolesc. 2011;40:1147–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Downs J, Murray P, de Bruin WB, Penrose J, Palmgren C, Fischhoff B. Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females’ STD risk: a randomized control trial. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:1561–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Warner L, Klausner J, Rietmeijer C, Malotte K, O’Donnell L, Margolis A, et al. Effect of a brief video intervention on incident infection among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. PLoS Med. 2008;5(6):e135.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miller B, Norton M, Jenson G, Lee T, Christopherson C, King P. Impact evaluation of facts and feelings: a home-based video sex education curriculum. Fam Relat. 1993;42(4):392–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Donnell L, Stueve A, Agronick G, Wilson-Simmons R, Duran R, Jeanbaptiste V. Saving sex for later: an evaluation of a parent education intervention. Perspect Sexual Reprod Health. 2005;37(4):166–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roye C, Silverman P, Krauss B. A brief, low-cost, theory-based intervention to promote dual method use by Black and Latina female adolescents: a randomized clinical trial. Health Educ Behav. 2006;31:1–14.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Winett R. Efficacy of a home-based HIV prevention video program for teens and parents. Health Educ Q. 1993;20(4):555–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Klein C, Card J. Preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered HIV prevention intervention for African American teenage females. AIDS Educ Prev. 2011;23(6):564–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stallman H, Ralph A. Reducing risk factors for adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: a pilot randomized controlled trial of a self-administered parenting intervention. Aust e-J Adv Ment Health. 2007;6(2):125–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    O’Donnell L, Myint-U A, Duran R, Stueve A. Especially for daughters: parent education to address alcohol and sex-related risk taking among urban young adolescent girls. Health Promot Pract. 2010;11:70S–8S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weekes CVN, Haas BK, Gosselin KP. Expectations and self-efficacy of African American parents who discuss sexuality with their adolescent sons: an intervention study. Public Health Nurs. 2013;31(3):253–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Donenberg G, Brown L, Hadley W, Kapungu C, Lescano C, DiClemente R, et al. Family-based HIV-prevention for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. In: Pequegnat W, Bell C, editors. Families and HIV/AIDS. New York: Springer Press; 2012. p. 261–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stanton B, Li X, Ricardo I, Galbraith J, Feigelman S, Kaljee L. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of an AIDS prevention program for low-income African-American youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:363–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Donenberg GR. Reconsidering “between-group psychotherapy outcome research and basic science”: applications to child and adolescent psychotherapy outcome research. J Clin Psychol. 1999;55:181–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Donenberg G, Pao M. Psychiatry’s role in a changing epidemic. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44(8):728–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brown LK, DiClemente RJ, Beausoleil NI. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus related knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors among sexually active and abstinent young adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 1992;13(2):140–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brown LK, Fritz GK. Children’s knowledge and attitudes about AIDS. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1988;27:504–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lawrence L, Levy S, Rubinson L. Self-efficacy and AIDS prevention for pregnant teens. J School Health. 1990;60:19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brown LK, Schultz JR, Parsons JT, Butler RB, Forsberg AD, Kocik SM, King G, Manco-Johnson M, Aledort L. Sexual behavior change among HIV infected adolescents with hemophilia. Pediatrics. 2000;106.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dutra R, Miller K, Forehand R. The process and content of sexual communication with adolescents in two-parent families: associations with sexual risk-taking behavior. AIDS Behav. 1999;3:59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Miller K, Kotchick B, Dorsey S, Forehand R, Ham A. Family communication about sex: what are parents saying and are their adoelscents listening? Fam Plan Perspect. 1998;30:218–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kerr M, Stattin H. What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Dev Psychol. 2000;36:366–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Baker S, Thalberg S, Morrison D. Parents’ behavioral norms as predictors of adolescent sexual activity and contraceptive use. Adolescence. 1988;23:265–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Donenberg GR, Emerson E, Bryant FB, Wilson H, Weber-Shifrin E. Understanding AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: links to psychopathology and peer relationships. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(6):642–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brown L, Hadley W, Donenberg G, DiClemente R, Lescano C, Lang D, et al. Project STYLE: a multisite RCT for HIV prevention among youths in mental health treatment. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65:338–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kumpfer KL. Family-based interventions for the prevention of substance abuse and other impulse control disorders in girls. ISRN Addict. 2014;2014:23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Friedlander ML. Family therapy research: science into practice, practice into science. In: Nichols MP, Schwartz RC, editors. Family therapy concepts and methods. 4th ed. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon; 1998. p. 523–4.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence—United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(5):113–7.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gage JC, Overpeck MD, Nansel TR, Kogan MD. Peer activity in the evenings and participation in aggressive and problem behaviors. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37(6):517-e7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lefkowitz E, Boone T, Sigman M, Au TK-F. He said, she said: gender differences in mother-adolescent conversations about sexuality. J Res Adolesc. 2002;12(2):217–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy Hadley
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. K. Brown
    • 1
  • D. Barker
    • 1
  • J. Warren
    • 1
  • P. Weddington
    • 2
  • T. Fortune
    • 2
  • I. Juzang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Bradley/Hasbro Children’s Research Center (BHCRC)Rhode Island Hospital and Brown Medical SchoolProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.MEE Productions, Inc.PhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations